AES Japan Section
2-19-9 Yayoi-cho, Nakano-ku, Tokyo
Tel: +81 3 5358 7320
Fax: +81 3 5358 7328 email
Audio Engineering Society Ltd
Tel: +44 1628 665974 email
AES Regions and Sections
Eastern Region, USA/Canada
Atlanta, Boston, Central Florida, District of Columbia, New York, Philadelphia, Southern Florida, Toronto
American University, Appalachian State University, Atlanta Student, Bay State College, Berklee College of Music, Carnegie Mellon University, Duquesne University, Elon University Section, Emerson College, Finger Lakes Community College, Fredonia, Full Sail Real World Education, Hampton Roads Student, Institute of Audio Research, Ithaca College, London Ontario Student, McGill University, New England Institute of Art, New England School of Communications, New York University, Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins Univ., Pennsylvania State University, Philadelphia Student, Rochester Institute of Technology, Shenandoah University, Syracuse University, Univ. of North Carolina at Asheville, University of Hartford, University of Massachusetts-Lowell, University of Miami, University of New Haven, University of Rochester, Valencia College, William Paterson University
Central Region, USA/Canada
Central Indiana, Central Texas, Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, Heartland, Kansas City, Nashville, New Orleans, St. Louis, Upper Midwest, West Michigan, Wisconsin
Art Institute of Houston, Art Institute of Tennessee-Nashville, Ball State University, Belmont University, Capital University, Columbia College, Indiana University, Kansas City Kansas Community College, McNally Smith College of Music, Michigan Technological University, Middle Tennessee State University, Ohio University, Purdue University, SAE Nashville, Southern Illinois University, Stephen F. Austin State University, Tribeca Flashpoint College, University of Central Missouri, University of Illinois - Urbana-Champaign, University of Memphis, University of Michigan, Webster University
Western Region, USA/Canada
Alberta, Colorado, Los Angeles, Pacific Northwest, Portland, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco, Southern Nevada, Vancouver
American River Regional, Art Institute of Las Vegas, Art Institute of Seattle, Brigham Young University, Cal Poly Pomona, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, California State University-Chico, Citrus College, Cogswell Polytechnical College, Conservatory of Recording Arts and Sciences, Expression College for Digital Arts, Long Beach City College, Loyola Marymount University, Robert Lang Academy, Salt Lake Community College, San Francisco State University, Southwestern College, Stanford University, University of Colorado at Denver, University of Lethbridge, University of Southern California
Northern Region, Europe
Belgian, British, Danish, Finnish, Moscow, Netherlands, Norwegian, St. Petersburg, Swedish
London UK, Moscow Student, Netherlands Student, University of Lulea-Pitea, University of York
Central Region, Europe
Austrian, Central German, Czech, Hungarian, Lithuanian, North German, Polish, Slovak, South German, Swiss, Ukrainian
Aachen, Berlin, Czech Republic Student, Darmstadt, Detmold, Duesseldorf, Graz Student, Hamburg Student, Ilmenau, Krakow Student, Poznan (Poland), Technical University of Gdansk (Poland), Vienna, Warsaw Student, Wroclaw University of Technology
Southern Europe/Middle East/Africa
Bulgarian, Croatian, French, Greek, Israel, Italian, Portugal, Romanian, Serbia, Slovenian, Spanish, Turkish
Berklee Valencia, Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey, Conservatoire de Paris, Croatian Student, Galatasaray ITM, Istanbul, Turkey, Louis-Lumiere, Microfusa Barcelona Student, Serbian Student
Latin American Region
Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Puebla, Uruguay
Academia de Musica Fermatta, Cochabamba, Del Bosque University, Ecos Escuela de Sonido, Escuela de Musica, Fernando Sor, Colombia, Hidalgo State, Mexico, I.A.V. Student, Instituto ENE Audio, Colombia, Instituto Mendocino de Audio y Sonido, Javeriana University, O.R.T. Institute, Orson Welles Institute, SAE Institute Mexico, Sala de Audio, Sonar Escuela de Sonido, Tecnológico de Monterrey - Monterrey Campus, Tecnológico de Monterrey - Santa Fe Campus, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador
Adelaide, Beijing, Brisbane, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Melbourne, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sydney
Greater Sydney, Japan Student
(ISSN 1549-4950) Published monthly, except January/February and July/August when published bimonthly, by the Audio Engineering Society, 551 Fifth Ave., Suite 1225, New York, New York 10176, USA, Telephone: +1 212 661 8528. Send Email. Periodical postage paid at New York, New York, and at an additional mailing office. Postmaster: Send address corrections to Audio Engineering Society, 551 Fifth Ave., Suite 1225, New York, New York 10176. The Audio Engineering Society is not responsible for statements made by its contributors.
Bozena Kostek - editor-in-chief Francis Rumsey - consultant technical writer & editor Søren Bech - associate technical editor Jeremy Cooperstock - associate technical editor Diemer de Vries - associate technical editor Christof Faller - associate technical editor Andreas Floros - associate technical editor Woon-Seng Gan - associate technical editor James D. Johnston - associate technical editor Francis (Feng) Li - associate technical editor Robert C. Maher - associate technical editor Aki Mäkivirta - associate technical editor Dan Mapes-Riordan - associate technical editor Francesco Martellotta - associate technical editor Jorge Mendoza-López - associate technical editor Thomas Sporer - associate technical editor Sascha Spors - associate technical editor Tony Stockman - associate technical editor Lamberto Tronchin - associate technical editor Xiaojun Qiu - associate technical editor Nadja Wallaszkovits - associate technical editor Toon van Waterschoot - associate technical editor William T. McQuaide - managing editor Mary Ellen Ilich - senior editor Barry A. Blesser - consulting technical editor Neil Shaw - associate editor, book reviews
Individual readers are permitted to photocopy isolated articles for research or other noncommercial use. Permission to photocopy for internal or personal use of specific clients is granted by the Audio Engineering Society to libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC), provided that the base fee of $1 per copy plus $.50 per page is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Dr., Danvers, MA 01923, USA. 0004-7554/95. Photocopies or PDFs of individual articles may be ordered from AES Headquarters office for $33 per article.
Reprints and Republication
Multiple reproduction or republication of any material in this Journal requires the permission of the Audio Engineering Society. Permission may also be required from the author(s). Inquiries should be sent to the AES Editorial office.
The Journal is available by subscription. 2016 rates are $310, printed; printed plus online $715; online only $565; upgrade from printed or E-Library $465. For information, contact AES Headquarters.
Selected back issues are available: $10.00 per issue (members), $25.00 (nonmembers). For information, contact AES Headquarters office.
Copies of Vol. 19, No. 1 (1971 January) to the present edition are available on microfilm from University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA.
Call the AES Editorial office or send email.
For information on the presentation and processing of manuscripts, see our Author Guidelines.
The Audio Engineering Society is organized for the purpose of: uniting persons performing professional services in the audio engineering field and its allied arts; collecting, collating, and disseminating scientific knowledge in the field of audio engineering and its allied arts; advancing such science in both theoretical and practical applications; and preparing, publishing, and distributing literature and periodicals relative to the foregoing purposes and policies.
Individuals who are interested in audio engineering may become members of the AES. Applications are considered by the Admissions Committee. Grades and annual dues are: Full members and associate members, $200 for both the printed and online Journal; $125 for online Journal only. Student members; $125 for printed and online Journal; $50 for online Journal only. A subscription to the Journal is included with all memberships. Sustaining memberships are available to persons, corporations, or organizations who wish to support the Society.