Modern live loudspeaker systems consist of broadband sources, often using variable curvature line sources, combined with subwoofers. While it is common practice to fly the broadband sources to improve energy distribution in the audience, most subwoofer configurations remain ground-stacked because of practical constraints and alleged efficiency loss of flown configurations. This article aims at evaluating the efficiency of flown subwoofers for large audiences as compared to their ground-stacked counterparts. We use finite element simulations to determine the influence of several factors: baffling effect, trim height. We show that flown configurations remain efficient at the back of the venue while reducing the SPL excess at the front of the audience.
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