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Standards In Print

The following standards and information documents are published by the Audio Engineering Society. The latest printing will include all amendments and corrections and will be available within a week of its date.

PLEASE NOTE: These are copyrighted documents that must not be printed or circulated except in part where useful in standards body deliberations or with the written permission of the AES Standards Committee. Any other use of AES standards information obtained from this Web site, including republishing or selling, is expressly forbidden.

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AES-Stds-Comp: Standards In Print, Complete Set: 2013-09-20
Printing Date: 2013-09-20
Publication History: Pub: 2008; updated 2008-08-25, 2008-08-29, 2008-10-03, 2008-11-12, 2009-01-19, 2009-02-16, 2009-03-10, 2009-06-01, 2010-02-19, 2010-10-29, 2011-04-26, 2011-09-23, 2011-10-17, 2012-08-07, 2012-08-20, 2013-02-11, 2013-09-20
Abstract: As a convenience to users, this compilation comprises a complete set of all AES standards documents. The compilation will be updated regularly to include all new publications available at the printing date.

These documents are fully printable.

PLEASE NOTE: These are copyrighted documents that must not be printed or circulated except in part where useful in standards body deliberations or with the written permission of the AES Standards Committee. Any other use of AES standards information obtained from this collection, including republishing or selling, is expressly forbidden.

This compilation product is provided as a ZIPed package containing a set of PDF files plus an HTML index page to provide a searchable overview of content and relevant access links. The content of the ZIP file must be extracted before it can be used. In addition to this package, you will need the following software to read these files:
  • ZIP archive extractor, such as: Stuffit Expander (Mac), WinZip (Windows).
  • HTML Web browser, such as Internet Explorer, Safari, or Firefox.
  • PDF viewer, such as Adobe Acrobat Reader.
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AES2-2012: AES standard for acoustics - Methods of measuring and specifying the performance of loudspeakers for professional applications - Drive units
Printing Date: 2013-02-11
Publication History: Pub. 1984; Reaffirmed 2003; Revised 2012.
Abstract: This document is a recommended practice for describing and specifying loudspeaker components used in professional audio and sound-reinforcement systems. The document considers high-frequency and low-frequency drivers and passive loudspeaker systems for professional applications, and identifies the relevant methods of measurement. Specifications are given for describing frequency response, impedance, distortion, and power handling. This document does not consider sub-components such as spiders or cones. It is intended for loudspeaker system designers, and drive-unit manufacturers. (20 pages)
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AES3-2009: AES standard for digital audio engineering - Serial transmission format for two-channel linearly represented digital audio data
Printing Date: 2010-01-11
Publication History: Pub. 1985; Rev. 1992; Am.1 1997; Am.2 1998; Am.3 1999; Am.4 1999; Rev. 2003; Am.5 2008; Am.6 2008; Rev. 2009
Abstract: AES3 provides for the serial digital transmission of two channels of periodically sampled and uniformly quantized audio signals on various media. This revision comprises four parts - also available separately - and includes all amendments prior to 2009.

Part 1 specifies the semantics of the audio data, including the "validity" flag. It also specifies the sampling frequency by reference to AES5, AES recommended practice for professional digital audio - Preferred sampling frequencies for applications employing pulse-code modulation.

Part 2 specifies the information transmitted with the audio data: principally the "channel status" but also user data and the use of the auxiliary bits to carry a co-ordination signal.

Part 3 specifies the framing and channel coding for transmission on a unidirectional point-to-point physical link. The specified format minimizes the direct-current (DC) component on the transmission line, facilitates clock recovery from the data stream, and makes the interface insensitive to the polarity of connections.

Part 4 specifies the physical signals that convey the bit stream specified in Part 3. The current version covers electrical signals on twisted-pair and co-axial cables. Other media, including fibre optic, are under consideration.

Note that the set of 4 documents is provided as a Zip archive that expands to 4 PDF files.
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AES3-1-2009: AES standard for digital audio - Digital input-output interfacing - Serial transmission format for two-channel linearly-represented digital audio data - Part 1: Audio Content
Printing Date: 2010-01-11
Publication History: Pub. 1985; Rev. 1992; Am. 1 - 1997; Am. 2 - 1998; Am. 3 - 1999; Am. 4 - 1999; Rev. 2003; Am. 5 - 2008; Am. 6 - 2008; Rev. 2009
Abstract: AES3 provides for the serial digital transmission of two channels of periodically sampled and uniformly quantized audio signals on various media.

This Part specifies the semantics of the audio data, including the "validity" flag. It also specifies the sampling frequency by reference to AES5, AES recommended practice for professional digital audio - Preferred sampling frequencies for applications employing pulse-code modulation.
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AES3-2-2009: AES standard for digital audio - Digital input-output interfacing - Serial transmission format for two-channel linearly-represented digital audio data - Part 2: Metadata and Subcode
Printing Date: 2010-01-11
Publication History: Pub. 1985; Rev. 1992; Am.1 1997; Am.2 1998; Am.3 1999; Am.4 1999; Rev. 2003; Am.5 2008; Am.6 2008; Rev. 2009
Abstract: AES3 provides for the serial digital transmission of two channels of periodically sampled and uniformly quantized audio signals on various media.

This Part specifies the information transmitted with the audio data: principally the "channel status" but also user data and the use of the auxiliary bits to carry a co-ordination signal. It incorporates Amendments 5 & 6.
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AES3-3-2009: AES standard for digital audio - Digital input-output interfacing - Serial transmission format for two-channel linearly-represented digital audio data - Part 3: Transport
Printing Date: 2010-01-11
Publication History: Pub. 1985; Rev. 1992; Am.1 1997; Am.2 1998; Am.3 1999; Am.4 1999; Rev. 2003; Am.5 2008; Am.6 2008; Rev. 2009
Abstract: AES3 provides for the serial digital transmission of two channels of periodically sampled and uniformly quantized audio signals on various media.

This Part specifies the framing and channel coding for transmission on a unidirectional point-to-point physical link. The specified format minimizes the direct-current (DC) component on the transmission line, facilitates clock recovery from the data stream, and makes the interface insensitive to the polarity of connections.
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AES3-4-2009: AES standard for digital audio - Digital input-output interfacing - Serial transmission format for two-channel linearly-represented digital audio data - Part 4: Physical and electrical
Printing Date: 2010-01-11
Publication History: Pub. 1985; Rev. 1992; Am.1 1997; Am.2 1998; Am.3 1999; Am.4 1999; Rev. 2003; Am.5 2008; Am.6 2008; Rev. 2009
Abstract: AES3 provides for the serial digital transmission of two channels of periodically sampled and uniformly quantized audio signals on various media.

This Part specifies the physical signals that convey the bit stream specified in Part 3. The current version covers electrical signals on twisted-pair and co-axial cables. Other media, including fibre optic, are under consideration.

The content of Annex D (Normative): "Coaxial Transmission" supersedes the information document AES-3id-2001 (r2006).
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AES3-Am5-2008: Amendment 5 to AES standard for digital audio - Digital input-output interfacing - Serial transmission format for two-channel linearly represented digital audio data
Printing Date: 2008-04-19
Publication History: Pub: 2008
Abstract: Recent projects to support carriage of MPEG Surround data in an AES3 bitstream (see AES55-2007), as well as questions arising when considering non-PCM data in an AES3 signal, require some detailed changes to the AES3 specification. This amendment adds a flag to indicate hidden data within a PCM signal, provides indications for two additional sampling frequencies, and clarifies the use of certain status bits when the signal is non-PCM.
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AES3-Am.6-2008: Amendment 6 to AES standard for digital audio engineering - Serial transmission format for two-channel linearly represented digital audio data
Printing Date: 2008-11-12
Publication History: Pub. 2008-11-12
Abstract:

The "minimum" implementation of Channel Status was included in the original AES3 specification to allow implementers to reduce the complexity of transmitting interfaces. Its use has always been discouraged, and in the context of current electronics hardware the complexity saving compared to the Standard implementation is not significant. Moreover, it adds complexity to receivers by requiring them to recognize a special case which does not have a correct CRC in byte 23, and in practice many receivers do not recognize it and flag a CRC error.

This Amendment withdraws the "minimum" implementation of Channel Status. Thus transmitters that use it will no longer conform to AES3, but the practice of insisting on a correct CRC in receivers now will conform.

This Amendment also adds a code point to byte 1, bits 4 to 7, to support the carriage of MIDI data in the user bits as specified in IEC 62537 (digital interface for loudspeakers).

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AES5-2008 (r2013): AES recommended practice for professional digital audio - Preferred sampling frequencies for applications employing pulse-code modulation (revision of AES5-2003)
Printing Date: 2014-06-16
Publication History: Pub. 1984; Rev. 1997; Rev. 2003; Rev. 2008; Reaff. 2013
Abstract: A sampling frequency of 48 kHz is recommended for the origination, processing, and interchange of audio programs employing pulse-code modulation. Recognition is also given to the use of a 44.1-kHz sampling frequency related to certain consumer digital applications, the use of a 32-kHz sampling frequency for transmission-related applications, and the use of a 96-kHz sampling frequency for applications requiring a higher bandwidth or more relaxed anti-alias filtering. This revision further quantifies the preferred choices for higher sampling frequencies. (8 pages)
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AES6-2008 (r2012): Method for measurement of weighted peak flutter of analogue sound recording and reproducing equipment
Printing Date: 2012-10-11
Publication History: Pub. 1982; Revised 1992; Reaffirmed 1997; Reaffirmed 2003; Revised 2008; Reaffirmed 2012
Abstract:

Weighted peak flutter is measured using a 3150-Hz tone transmitted through the equipment. The tone is frequency demodulated, frequency-response weighted, peak-to-peak detected, time-response weighted, and read out on a two-sigma statistical voltmeter over a period of at least 5 s. Results are reported as weighted peak flutter of the recorder (or reproducer, or recording/reproducing system): +/-___ percent.

A toleranced graph and table give the frequency-response weighting (approximately at 6-dB-per-octave drop above and below 4 Hz, with an additional drop below 0,5 Hz). The statistical voltmeter is described; it is preferred, and replaces the quasi-peak meter (now deprecated) of the original standard.

Good engineering practices are given for the meter design. The rationale for this standard is given in an annex. This standard has technical requirements identical to IEC 60386 Ed.1 1972 as amended by IEC 60386-am1, 1988. Measurement results according to this standard are identical to those made according to the older standards originally published as IEEE Std-193, IEC 60386 Ed.1 1972, CCIR 409-2, and DIN 45 507.

The title of the document was amended in the 2012-10-11 printing to indicate its application to "Analogue Sound Recording and Reproducing Equipment". (13 pages)

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AES7-2000 (r2005): AES standard for the preservation and restoration of audio recording -- Method of measuring recorded fluxivity of magnetic sound records at medium wavelengths (Revision of AES7-1982)
Printing Date: 2004-10-14
Publication History: Pub. 1982; Reaffirmed 1997; Rev. 2000; Reaffirmed 2005
Abstract: This standard specifies a method of measuring the recorded flux per unit track width, called fluxivity, of a magnetically recorded sinusoidal test signal at medium wavelengths for all magnetic sound record formats, by using a high-efficiency magnetic reproducing head. It also specifies the equipment needed to implement this method. The ANSI version is withdrawn. It had been available as S4.6-1982 (13 pages)
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AES10-2008 (r2014): AES Recommended Practice for Digital Audio Engineering - Serial Multichannel Audio Digital Interface (MADI)
Printing Date: 2014-07-29
Publication History: Pub. 1991; Revised 2003; Revised 2008; Addendum 2010-02-19 Reaffirmed 2014
Abstract:

This standard describes the data organization for a multichannel audio digital interface. It includes a bit-level description, features in common with the AES3 two-channel format, and the data rates required for its utilization. The specification provides for the serial digital transmission of 32, 56, or 64 channels of linearly represented digital audio data at a common sampling frequency within the range 32 kHz to 96 kHz, having a resolution of up to 24 bits per channel. The format makes possible the transmission and reception of the complete 28-bit channel word (excluding preamble) as specified in AES3, providing for the validity, user, channel status, and parity information allowable under that standard. The transmission format is of the asynchronous simplex type and is specified for a single 75-ohm coaxial cable point-to-point interconnection or the use of fibre-optic cables.

This revision includes minor changes to conform to recent revisions of AES3 and AES5 and provides clarifications of sync reference signals and link transmission-rate tolerance, and references for 'NRZI' and the 4B5B coding scheme. (18 pages)

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AES11-2009: AES recommended practice for digital audio engineering - Synchronization of digital audio equipment in studio operations. (Revision of AES11-2003)
Printing Date: 2010-02-19
Publication History: Pub. 1991; Rev. 1997; Rev. 2003; Rev 2009; Addendum 2010-02-19
Abstract: This standard provides a systematic approach to the synchronization of digital audio signals. Recommendations are made concerning the accuracy of sample clocks as embodied in the interface signal and the use of this format as a convenient synchronization reference where signals must be rendered co-timed for digital processing. Synchronism is defined, and limits are given which take account of relevant timing uncertainties encountered in an audio studio. Includes an informative discussion of wordclock.

In this revision, the relationship with AES5 has been clarified, with tolerances specified only in AES11 and nomenclature for multiple rates only in AES5. The subclause on video referencing (4.5) and Annex B (Word Clock) have been revised to more accurately reflect the current situation in the field. Annex D has been added. (19 pages)
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AES14-1992 (r2014): AES standard for professional audio equipment - Application of connectors, part 1, XLR-type polarity and gender
Printing Date: 2014-07-29
Publication History: Pub. 1992; Reaffirmed 1998; Reaffirmed 2004; Reaffirmed 2009; Reprinted 2012, Reaffirmed 2014
Abstract: This Audio Engineering Society (AES) standard specifies a common scheme for wiring the connectors used in audio systems, particularly to avoid the inversion of absolute polarity among the items in the analog signal chain. The ANSI version is withdrawn. It had been available as S4.48-1992 (8 pages)
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AES15-1991 (w2002): AES Recommended Practice for Sound-reinforcement systems -- Communications interface (PA-422) (Withdrawn: 2002)
Printing Date: 2000-03-15
Publication History: Pub. 1991; Withdrawn 2002
Abstract: This Audio Engineering Society (AES) Standard specifies the electrical characteristics of a balanced-voltage circuit for the interchange of serial binary signals for the control of sound-reinforcement systems. It provides for interchange among data terminal equipment (DTE), that is, computers and microprocessors, and data circuit terminating equipment (DCE). PA-422 is a mnemonic, signifying professional audio implementation of Electronics Industries Association EIA-422-A. Device control language is provided in an annex. [Current printing includes all device control coding additions to date.] An ANSI version available as S4.49-1991 has been withdrawn. (22 pages)
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AES17-1998 (r2009): AES standard method for digital audio engineering -- Measurement of digital audio equipment (Revision of AES17-1991)
Printing Date: 2010-04-07
Publication History: Pub. 1996; Rev. 1998; reaffirmed 2004; Reaffirmed 2009
Abstract: This standard provides methods for specifying and verifying the performance of digital audio equipment. Many tests are substantially identical to those used when testing analog equipment. However, because of the unique requirements of digital audio equipment and the effects of its imperfections, additional tests are necessary. (20 pages)
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AES18-1996 (r2002): AES Recommended practice for digital audio engineering -- Format for the user data channel of the AES digital audio interface. (revision of AES18-1992)
Printing Date: 2005-05-12
Publication History: Pub. 1992; Reaffirmed 1996; Reaffirmed 2002; Stabilized 2008-09-22
Abstract: This Standard describes a method of formatting the user data channels provided within the digital audio serial interface format (AES3). The transmission format is an adaptation of the packet-based high-level data link control (HDLC) communications protocol and provides for the transmission of ancillary data that may or may not be time related to the audio signal. The data rate is constant within a range of +- 12.5 percent of a sampling frequency of 48 kHz. The standard also provides a data priority and management strategy to ensure that adequate capacity is available for downstream data insertion. (45 pages)
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AES19-1992 (w2003): AES-ALMA standard test method for audio engineering -- Measurement of the lowest resonance frequency of loudspeaker cones. (Withdrawn: 2003)
Printing Date: 1999-03-05
Publication History: Pub. 1992 Withdrawn: 2003
Abstract: This standard test method is intended to determine the frequency of lowest resonance of a loudspeaker cone. Such information is used for engineering design and for quality control. The method has been developed to improve correlation of measurement between cone manufacturers and loudspeaker manufacturers. Note: this standard, although withdrawn as an AES document, will continue to be maintained by ALMA International. The ANSI version is also withdrawn. It had been available as S4.30-1992 (7 pages)
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AES20-1996 (r2007): AES recommended practice for professional audio -- Subjective evaluation of loudspeakers
Printing Date: 2008-02-19
Publication History: Pub. 1996; reaffirmed 2002; reaffirmed 2007; Stabilized 2008-09-22
Abstract: This Standard is a set of recommendations for subjective evaluation of high-performance loudspeaker systems. It is believed that, for certain audio components including loudspeakers, subjective evaluation is a necessary adjunct to objective measurements. The strong influence of listening conditions, program material and of individual evaluators is recognized. This document seeks, therefore, to assist in avoiding testing errors rather than to attempt to establish a correct procedure. (21 pages)
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AES22-1997 (r2008): AES recommended practice for audio preservation and restoration -- Storage and handling -- Storage of polyester-base magnetic tape
Printing Date: 2009-02-16
Publication History: Pub. 1997; Reaffirmed 2003; Reaffirmed 2008
Abstract: This standard provides recommendations concerning the storage conditions, storage facilities, enclosures, and inspection for recorded polyester-base magnetic tapes in roll form. It covers analog and digital tape and includes tape made for audio, video, instrumentation, and computer use. (22 pages)
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AES24-1-1999 (w2004): AES standard for sound system control - Application protocol for controlling and monitoring audio devices via digital data networks - Part 1: Principles, formats, and basic procedures (Revision of AES24-1-1995)
Printing Date: 1999-03-02
Publication History: Pub. 1995; Revised 1999; Withdrawn 2004
Abstract: This document describes the architecture of AES-24, the name assigned to an extensible application protocol for controlling and monitoring audio devices via local area networks, and, when possible in the future, devices designed for other media. This document has been withdrawn but remains available for reference (43 pages)
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AES24-2-tu (w2004): PROPOSED DRAFT AES standard for sound system control - application protocol for controlling and monitoring audio devices via digital data networks - Part 2, data types, constants, and class structure (for Trial Use)
Printing Date: 1999-02-27
Publication History: Pub. 1999 for Trial Use; Withdrawn 2004
Abstract: This proposed standard specifies the class hierarchy for the AES-24 application protocol. AES-24 classes make up the conceptual framework from which AES-24 objects and the AES-24 application protocol and its message definitions are derived. This standard is intended to be used by developers of software and firmware whose applications, devices, or both will be used in conjunction with an AES-24 network. AESSC wishes to provide opportunity for discussion and trial use before the document is presented as a call for comment leading to finalization of the standard. It is therefore initiating a process of public discussion via the Internet. This document has been withdrawn but is available for reference (52 pages)
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AES26-2001 (r2011): AES recommended practice for professional audio -- Conservation of the polarity of audio signals (Revision of AES26-1995)
Printing Date: 2011-10-05
Publication History: Pub. 1995; Revised 2001; Reaffirmed 2006; Reaffirmed 2011;
Abstract: This document standardizes the polarity of the signals at the various interface points between different items of equipment, in particular from the acoustical, electrical, mechanical, digital, and magnetic aspects. Each item of equipment complies separately with the polarity requirements for the input and output signals. (13 pages)
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AES27-1996 (r2007): AES recommended practice for forensic purposes -- Managing recorded audio materials intended for examination
Printing Date: 2008-02-05
Publication History: Pub. 1996; reaffirmed 2002, reaffirmed 2007
Abstract: This document specifies recommended practices for safekeeping, conveyance, inspection, description, and labeling of audio recordings offered as evidence in criminal investigations, in criminal or civil proceedings, or in other forensic applications. It does not cover analysis of magnetic tapes or other recording media for the purposes of authenticity determination, talker identification, copyright violation, enhancement of oral conversations or other signals, or otherwise characterizing signals recorded on such tapes. (9 pages)
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AES28-1997 (r2008): AES standard for audio preservation and restoration - Method for estimating life expectancy of compact discs (CD-ROM), based on effects of temperature and relative humidity (includes Amendment 1-2001)
Printing Date: 2009-02-16
Publication History: Pub. 1997; Am. 1 - 2001; Reaffirmed 2003; Reaffirmed 2008
Abstract: This standard specifies test methods for estimating the storage life expectancy (LE) of information stored on compact discs (CD-ROM). Only the effects of temperature and relative humidity are considered. Block error rate (BLER) is the measured response and the end-of-life criterion. An Eyring model is developed from accelerated test results. Data are normalized to 25 degC and 50 % relative humidity, and the LE, percent compliance, and confidence intervals at these conditions are calculated. (22 pages)
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AES31-1-2001 (r2011): AES standard for network and file transfer of audio - Audio-file transfer and exchange Part 1: Disk format
Printing Date: 2011-10-17
Publication History: Pub. 2001; Reaffirmed 2006, reaffirmed 2011
Abstract: This document defines a disk format specification to maintain compatibility with as wide a user base as possible to facilitate audio-file transfer and exchange between differing systems. The document does not describe a complete disk format but provides enough information to choose a proprietary system that will maintain compatibility. The main objective of this disk format specification is to ensure compatibility with as wide a user base as possible to facilitate audio-file transfer and exchange between differing systems. (19 pages)
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AES31-2-2012: AES standard on network and file transfer of audio - Audio-file transfer and exchange - File format for transferring digital audio data between systems of different type and manufacture
Printing Date: 2013-01-24
Publication History: Pub. 2006, Rev. 2012
Abstract: The Broadcast Wave Format is a file format for audio data. It can be used for the seamless exchange of audio material between (i) different broadcast environments and (ii) equipment based on different computer platforms.

As well as the audio data, a BWF file (BWFF) contains the minimum information - or metadata - that is considered necessary for all broadcast applications. The Broadcast Wave Format is based on the Microsoft WAVE audio file format. This specification adds a ?Broadcast Audio Extension? chunk to the basic WAVE format.

An optional Extended Broadcast Wave Format (BWF-E) file format is designed to be a compatible extension of the Broadcast Wave Format (BWF) for audio file sizes larger than a conventional Wave file. It extends the maximum size capabilities of the RIFF/WAVE format by increasing its address space to 64 bits where necessary. BWF-E is also designed to be mutually compatible with the EBU T3306 "RF64" extended format.

This revision additionally packages a set of machine-readable loudness metadata into the BWF file. This is compatible with EBU v2 broadcast wave files.
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AES31-3-2008 (r2013): AES standard for network and file transfer of audio - Audio-file transfer and exchange - Part 3: Simple project interchange
Printing Date: 2014-01-27
Publication History: Pub. 1999; Revised 2008; Reaffirmed 2013
Abstract: This standard provides a convention for expressing edit data in text form for digital audio stored as random access disk files in a manner that enables simple and accurate computer parsing while retaining human readability. It also describes a method for expressing sample-accurate time-code information in character notation, and simple automation for stereo & surround panning and audio gain. (49 pages)
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AES32-tu: PROPOSED DRAFT AES standard for professional audio interconnections Fibre optic connectors, cables, and characteristics (for Trial Use)
Printing Date: 2000-07-12
Publication History: Pub. 2000 for Trial Use
Abstract: This document covers fibre-optic connectors and cables for professional use in audio applications not included in other AES standards. AESSC wishes to provide opportunity for discussion and trial use before the document is presented as a call for comment leading to finalization of the standard. It is therefore initiating a process of public discussion via the Internet. (25 pages)
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AES33-1999 (w2004): AES standard -- For audio interconnections -- Database of multiple-program connection configurations (Withdrawn: 2004)
Printing Date: 1999-09-14
Publication History: Pub. 1999; Withdrawn 2004
Abstract: This document specifies the purpose and procedures for the maintenance of data on an AESSC database of connectors for multiple-program applications. (5 pages) NOTE: This standard was withdrawn 2004-05-25 but remains available for reference
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AES35-2000 (w2005): AES standard for audio preservation and restoration - Method for estimating life expectancy of magneto-optical (M-O) disks, based on effects of temperature and relative humidity.
Printing Date: 2010-10-28
Publication History: Pub. 2000; Reaffirmed 2005; Withdrawn 2010
Abstract: This standard specifies test methods for estimating the life expectancy of information stored on magneto-optical (M-O) disks. Only the effects of temperature and relative humidity on the media are considered. (21 pages)
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AES38-2000 (r2010): AES standard for audio preservation and restoration -- Life expectancy of information stored in recordable compact disc systems -- Method for estimating, based on effects of temperature and relative humidity.
Printing Date: 2010-10-28
Publication History: Pub. 2000, Reaffirmed 2005, Reaffirmed 2010
Abstract: This standard specifies test methods for estimating the life expectancy of information stored in recordable compact disc systems. Only the effects of temperature and relative humidity on the media are considered. (28 pages)
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AES41-1-2012: AES standard for digital audio - Audio-embedded metadata - Part 1: General
Printing Date: 2012-07-20
Publication History: Pub. 2000; Reaffirmed 2005; Revised 2009; Revised 2012
Abstract: AES41 provides for the carriage of audio metadata by embedding it in the audio samples themselves. This tightly associates the metadata with the audio, yet makes it fragile so that changes to the audio will invalidate the metadata. Several metadata sets have been defined, covering applications such as cascaded compression (bit-rate reduction), and loudness control.

This Part specifies the method by which a metadata set is embedded in the audio samples. Other parts define the content and format of the metadata sets.

This standard revises AES41-2009: AES standard for digital audio - Recoding data set for audio bit-rate reduction
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AES41-2-2012: AES standard for digital audio - Audio-embedded metadata - Part 2: MPEG-1 Layer II or MPEG-2 LSF Layer II
Printing Date: 2012-07-20
Publication History: Pub. 2000; Reaffirmed 2005; Revised 2009; Revised 2012
Abstract: AES41 provides for the carriage of audio metadata by embedding it in the audio samples themselves. This tightly associates the metadata with the audio, yet makes it fragile so that changes to the audio will invalidate the metadata. Several metadata sets have been defined, covering applications such as cascaded compression (bit rate reduction), and loudness control.

This part describes the format for the data to be transmitted with audio decoded from MPEG-1 Layer II or MPEG-2 LSF Layer II encoding. The data may be used to aid a subsequent re-encoding process. A method of carrying this data is described in Part 1 of this Standard.

This standard revises AES41-2009: AES standard for digital audio - Recoding data set for audio bit-rate reduction
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AES41-3-2012: AES standard for digital audio - Audio-embedded metadata - Part 3: AAC & HE-AAC
Printing Date: 2012-07-20
Publication History: Pub. 2012
Abstract: AES41 provides for the carriage of audio metadata by embedding it in the audio samples themselves. This tightly associates the metadata with the audio, yet makes it fragile so that changes to the audio will invalidate the metadata. Several metadata sets have been defined, covering applications such as cascaded compression (bit rate reduction), and loudness control.

This part describes the format for the data to be transmitted with audio to signal downmix coefficients, loudness and dynamic range control metadata as used in ISO/IEC 14496-3:2009 Subpart 4 (AAC and HE-AAC). A method of carrying this data is described in Part 1 of this Standard.
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AES41-4-2012: AES standard for digital audio - Audio-embedded metadata - Part 4: Dolby E
Printing Date: 2012-07-20
Publication History: Pub. 2012
Abstract: AES41 provides for the carriage of audio metadata by embedding it in the audio samples themselves. This tightly associates the metadata with the audio, yet makes it fragile so that changes to the audio will invalidate the metadata. Several metadata sets have been defined, covering applications such as cascaded compression (bit rate reduction), and loudness control.

This part describes the format for the data to be transmitted with audio to signal downmix coefficients, loudness, and channel configuration metadata as used Dolby E.
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AES41-5-2012: AES standard for digital audio - Audio-embedded metadata - Part 5: EBU loudness, true-peak, and downmix
Printing Date: 2012-07-20
Publication History: Pub. 2012
Abstract: AES41 provides for the carriage of audio metadata by embedding it in the audio samples themselves. This tightly associates the meta-data with the audio, yet makes it fragile so that changes to the audio will invalidate the meta-data. Several metadata sets have been defined, covering applications such as cascaded compression (bit rate reduction), and loudness control.

This part describes the format for the data to be transmitted with audio to signal loudness and true peak metadata as used in EBU Technical Recommendation R128. A method of carrying this data is described in Part 1 of this Standard.
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AES42-2010: AES standard for acoustics -- Digital interface for microphones
Printing Date: 2011-03-07
Publication History: Pub. 2001; Rev. 2006; reprinted 2008-07-22; Addenda 2010-02-19; Rev. 2010
Abstract: This standard describes an extension of the existing digital audio interface AES3 to provide a digital interface for microphones and revises AES42-2001. The principal changes in this document define additional operating features in the command structure so that processing internal to the microphone may be controlled from a mixing console, for example. The 2010 revision adds the AES42 system-command set to enable storage and recall of user settings in the microphone itself. It also adds a higher bit rate option called Fast-DPP mode to transmit DPP commands or firmware update data. (42 pages)
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AES43-2000 (r2010): AES standard for forensic purposes -- Criteria for the authentication of analog audio tape recordings
Printing Date: 2010-12-02
Publication History: Pub. 2000; Reaffirmed 2005; Reaffirmed 2010
Abstract: The purpose of this standard is to formulate a standard scientific procedure for the authentication of audio tape recordings intended to be offered as evidence or otherwise utilized in civil, criminal, or other fact finding proceedings. (11 pages)
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AES45-2001 (r2011): AES standard for single programme connectors -- Connectors for loudspeaker-level patch panels
Printing Date: 2011-10-05
Publication History: Pub. 2001; Reaffirmed 2006; Reaffirmed 2011
Abstract: This standard complements IEC 60268-12 including amendments 1 and 2, extending the standardization of application of AES45-series connectors to their use for loudspeaker-level patch panels. (8 pages)
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AES46-2002 (r2007): AES standard for network and file transfer of audio Audio-file transfer and exchange Radio traffic audio delivery extension to the broadcast-WAVE-file format
Printing Date: 2007-10-16
Publication History: Pub. 2002; reaffirmed 2007; Stabilized 2008-09-22
Abstract: This document provides a convention for communicating basic radio traffic and continuity data via a dedicated chunk embedded in Broadcast Wave format compliant WAVE files. (16 pages)
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AES47-2006 (r2011): AES standard for digital audio - Digital input-output interfacing - Transmission of digital audio over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks
Printing Date: 2011-10-17
Publication History: Pub. 2002; Rev. 2006; Addenda 2010-02-19; Reaffirmed 2011
Abstract: This document specifies the method of carrying multiple channels of audio in linear PCM or AES3 format in calls across an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network to ensure interoperability. The specification includes the method of conveying information concerning the format and sampling frequency of the digital audio signal when setting up the calls.

The 2006 revision specifies an Organisationally Unique Identifier, and simplifies the minimum requirements to ensure interworking. (26 pages)

Report AES R4-2002, also available from this site, is a useful explanatory supplement

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AES47-Am1-2008: Amendment 1 to AES47 - AES standard for digital audio - Digital input-output interfacing - Transmission of digital audio over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks
Printing Date: 2009-02-16
Publication History: Published 2008
Abstract: This Amendment adds code points in the ATM Adaptation Layer Parameters Information Element to signal that the time to which each audio sample relates can be identified as specified in AES53. (2 pages)
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AES48-2005 (r2010): AES standard on interconnections - Grounding and EMC practices - Shields of connectors in audio equipment containing active circuitry
Printing Date: 2010-07-08
Publication History: Pub. 2005; Reaffirmed 2010
Abstract: This standard specifies requirements for the termination, within audio equipment, of the shields of cables supporting interconnections with other equipment, taking into account measures commonly necessary for the preservation of EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) at both audio and radio frequencies. The shielding (or screening) of audio equipment, cables, and microphones can be critical for EMC. The improper connection of these shields can cause common-impedance coupling in equipment. From XL connector usage, where Pin 1 is standardised as the designated shield contact, this has been identified as the Pin 1 problem
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AES49-2005 (r2010): AES standard for audio preservation and restoration - Magnetic tape - Care and handling practices for extended usage
Printing Date: 2010-10-28
Publication History: Pub. 2005, Reaffirmed 2010
Abstract: This standard provides recommendations for the care and handling of magnetic tape in order to optimise the life of the medium and its recorded content. It covers analog and digital tape and includes tape made for audio, video, instrumentation and computer use.
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AES50-2011: AES standard for digital audio engineering - High-resolution multi-channel audio interconnection
Printing Date: 2011-09-21
Publication History: Ed.1 2005; Rev. 2011
Abstract: This new edition revises AES50-2005 and contains amendments resulting from a real-world implementation of the standard. HRMAI provides a professional multi-channel audio interconnection with a number of distinctive characteristics: ? Support for a wide range of commonly-used digital audio coding formats ? Low and deterministic latency ? Use of ubiquitous ?Category-5? data cable ? Interconnect span up to 100 m ? High-quality full-duplex clocks transmitted in parallel with audio data ? Full-duplex audio interconnection ? 5 Mbit/sec full-duplex auxiliary data connection, compatible with Ethernet networks. HRMAI is a high-performance point-to-point audio interconnection rather than a network, although the auxiliary data may operate as a true network, independently of the audio.

Companion document AES-R6-2005 provides additional background information and implementation guidelines.

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AES51-2006 (r2011): AES standard for digital audio - Digital input-output interfacing - Transmission of ATM cells over Ethernet physical layer
Printing Date: 2011-10-17
Publication History: Pub. 2006; Reaffirmed 2011
Abstract: This standard specifies a method, also known as "ATM-E", of carrying asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) cells over hardware specified for IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet). It is intended as a companion standard to AES47 (Transmission of digital audio over ATM networks), to provide a standard method of carrying ATM cells and real-time clock over hardware specified for Ethernet.
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AES52-2006 (r2011): AES standard for digital audio engineeringAES standard for digital audio engineering - Insertion of unique identifiers into the AES3 transport stream
Printing Date: 2011-10-17
Publication History: Pub. 2006; Addenda 2010-02-19; Reaffirmed 2011
Abstract: The AES3 transport stream continues to be used extensively in both discrete and network based audio systems alongside audio stored as files. Audio content is moving towards being handled by asset management systems and descriptive metadata associated with that content is also being stored within systems. In order to provide a mechanism for AES3 transport streams to have similar abilities to work with content management systems, some form of unique label is required which can provide the link with these systems. One of the unique labels currently standardised in the media industry is the SMPTE UMID while another commonly used in the Information Technology area is the IEC UUID.

This standard specifies the method for inserting unique identifiers into the user data area of an AES3 stream. This specifically covers the use of UUID as well as a basic or extended SMPTE UMID.

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AES53-2006 (r2011): AES standard for digital audio - Digital input-output interfacing - Sample-accurate timing in AES47
Printing Date: 2011-10-17
Publication History: Published 2006; Reaffirmed 2011
Abstract: This document specifies how the timing markers specified in AES47 may be used to associate an absolute timestamp with individual audio samples. AES47 specifies a format for the transmission of digital audio over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks. A recommendation is made to refer these timestamps to the SMPTE epoch which in turn provides a reference to UTC and GPS time.
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AES54-1-2008 (r2013): AES standard on interconnections - Grounding and EMC practices - Connection of cable shields within connectors attached to portable balanced audio cables
Printing Date: 2013-09-03
Publication History: Pub. 2008; Reaffirmed 2013
Abstract: This standard specifies requirements for, and summarizes general considerations relative to, the connection of cable shields within connectors attached to portable balanced cables for the transmission of audio, taking into account measures commonly necessary for the preservation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) at both audio and radio frequencies.
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AES54-2-2008 (r2013): AES standard on interconnections - Grounding and EMC practices - Shields of balanced audio wiring within fixed and portable passive connector panels, jack fields, and passive microphone splitters
Printing Date: 2013-09-03
Publication History: Pub. 2008; reprinted with corrigenda 2009-01-19, Reaffirmed 2013
Abstract: This standard specifies requirements for, and summarizes general considerations relative to, the shielding of balanced audio interconnections within fixed and portable connector panels, jack fields (patch bays), and passive microphone splitters, taking into account measures commonly necessary for the preservation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) at both audio and radio frequencies.
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AES54-3-2008 (r2013): AES standard on interconnections - Grounding and EMC practices - Shields of balanced microphone-level outputs of active equipment other than microphones
Printing Date: 2013-09-03
Publication History: Pub. 2008; Reaffirmed 2013
Abstract: This standard specifies requirements for, and summarizes general considerations relative to, the shielding of balanced microphone-level outputs of audio equipment, taking into account measures commonly necessary for the preservation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) at both audio and radio frequencies.
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AES55-2012: AES standard for digital audio engineering - Carriage of MPEG Surround in an AES3 bitstream
Printing Date: 2013-01-24
Publication History: Pub: 2007, Addenda 2010-02-19; Revised 2012
Abstract:

MPEG Surround is an ISO/IEC standard to extend mono or stereo audio towards multiple channels. The mono or stereo audio channels represent a downmix of the original multi-channel audio that is generated by the MPEG Surround encoder. In addition the MPEG Surround encoder generates spatial side information (MPEG Surround data). An MPEG Surround decoder is able to combine this information with the downmix to result in a multichannel audio signal. In this way backward compatibility to mono and stereo systems is achieved.

More recently, MPEG-D has been revised to include MPEG SAOC (Spatial Audio Object Coding) that uses the same method to convey the related side information over PCM.

This standard specifies how MPEG Surround or MPEG SAOC shall be carried within an AES3 bitstream where the downmix channels remain in the linear PCM domain and the MPEG Surround or MPEG SAOC data is embedded into the least-significant bits of the PCM audio data.

See also AES3-Am5-2008 for relevant amendments in the AES3 transport stream

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AES56-2008: AES standard on acoustics - Sound source modeling - Loudspeaker polar radiation measurements
Printing Date: 2009-03-10
Publication History: Pub. 2008; Addenda 2009-03-10
Abstract: This standard describes how the measurements of loudspeaker polar radiation data shall be made and documented. This acquired data is suitable for application in room acoustic, electro-acoustic, and sound system predictions, and loudspeaker data sheets.
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AES57-2011: AES standard for audio metadata - Audio object structures for preservation and restoration
Printing Date: 2011-09-21
Publication History: Pub. 2011
Abstract: This standard provides a vocabulary to be used in describing structural and administrative metadata for digital and analog audio formats for the purpose of enabling audio preservation activities on those objects. Some implementations also refer to this metadata as technical metadata. The characteristics of the audio objects captured by this standard may be of use to audio communities beyond the audio preservation community.
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AES58-2008 (r2013): AES standard for digital audio - Audio applications of networks - Application of IEC 61883-6 32-bit generic data
Printing Date: 2013-08-15
Publication History: Pub. 2008; Reaff. 2013
Abstract: The primary use of IEEE-1394 isochronous packets, as defined in IEC 61883-6 (also known as FireWire), is for carrying audio and music data. This document defines an efficient means for carrying data in a wider variety of formats, for example professional audio and manufacturer-specific data, in IEC 61883-6 isochronous packets.
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AES59-2012: AES standard for professional audio - Audio application of 25-way D-type connectors in balanced circuits
Printing Date: 2012-08-18
Publication History: Pub. 2012
Abstract: This document describes a standard contact assignment and gender convention for users of the 25-contact D-type connector as a multi-channel balanced audio interconnection, in analogue or AES3 digital form, to facilitate interconnection of equipment from different suppliers using standardized cables. The intent is to simplify the rapid and reliable interconnection of equipment in temporary installations, perhaps using rented equipment, although the method may be extended to permanent installations where appropriate.
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AES60-2011: AES standard for audio metadata - Core audio metadata
Printing Date: 2011-09-22
Publication History: Pub. 2011
Abstract: This specification addresses the creation, management and preservation of material that can be re-used as originally produced, or may provide input material for new production projects. Material is expected to be exchanged between various organisations or between production facilities in a distributed environment. The core set of metadata presented in this specification is a co-publication of EBU Tech3293-2008 EBU Core, itself an extension to and a refinement of the Dublin Core. EBUCore is a minimum list of attributes characterizing video and / or audio media resources. An XML representation is also provided in case this metadata would be implemented, for example in archive exchange projects using the Open Archive Initiative's Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH).
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AES62-2011: AES standard for audio connectors - Modified XLR-3 Connector for Digital Audio
Printing Date: 2011-10-05
Publication History: Pub. 2011
Abstract: This standard covers new connector types in order to identify AES3 equipment, signals and transmission circuits (tie lines). By extension, the same connectors will also identify AES42 microphone connections. The new "digital" connectors are based on the conventional analogue three pole XLR-type connectors with the difference of additional keying. The keying is realized in a manner as to prevent mating with conventional XLR-type connectors. Furthermore new "compatible" connectors that mate with both "digital" and conventional types are being specified.
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AES63-2012: AES standard for interconnections - Data connector in an XLR connector shell
Printing Date: 2012-08-03
Publication History: Pub 2012-08-03
Abstract: Commonly used modular connectors are widely used, but are fragile in demanding installations, where a broken connection can affect the application critically. This is not important in many applications, such as structured data cabling for use with computer networks, or simple interconnect cabling and patching using Category 5 (or better) data cable. However, in professional audio applications, a broken connection can affect the application critically. A standard ruggedized fitting will promote system security in these applications. This document specifies a ruggedized data connector that is compatible with 8-position 8-contact (8P8C) modular connectors, commonly (though inaccurately) called RJ-45 connectors, with regard to mechanical aspects for proper mating and locking.
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AES64-2012: AES standard for audio applications of networks - Command, control, and connection management for integrated media
Printing Date: 2013-01-14
Publication History: Published 2012
Abstract: This standard for networked command, control, and connection management for integrated media is an IP-based peer-to-peer network protocol, in which any device on the network may initiate or accept control, monitoring, and connection management commands. The AES64 protocol has been developed around three important concepts: structuring, joining, and indexing. Every parameter is part of a structure, and control is possible at any of the levels of the structure, allowing for control over sets of parameters. Parameters can be joined into groups, thereby enabling control over many disparate parameters from a single control source. Every parameter has an index associated with it and, once discovered, this index provides a low bandwidth alternative to parameter control.
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AES65-2012: AES standard for interconnections - Connector for surround microphones
Printing Date: 2013-02-11
Publication History: Pub. 2012
Abstract: An increasing number of surround sound microphones are becoming available, however, there has been no common standard for the connectors between microphone and recording device. It is expected that a standard connection will create a basis for smaller and lighter recording devices.

This standard specifies a connector type and contact assignment for microphones having up to six balanced analog output channels, as used in surround sound applications. It includes specifications for marking and identification for the audio channels. It includes recommendations for cable type and detailed wiring. It is expected that other applications will also use this connection.
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AES66-2012: AES standard for professional audio equipment - Application of connectors - Miniature XLR-type polarity and gender
Printing Date: 2013-02-11
Publication History: Pub. 2012
Abstract: This standard is intended to apply to three- and five-pin circular connectors, commonly and generically known as miniature XLR-type, used for the balanced interconnection of all categories of sound system components for professional audio, commercial, recording, broadcast, and similar applications, regardless of function, type, or level of the signal. It specifies the application and polarity of analog signals for these connectors and is intended to avoid the inversion of absolute polarity among the items in the analog signal chain.
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AES67-2013: AES standard for audio applications of networks - High-performance streaming audio-over-IP interoperability
Printing Date: 2014-03-24
Publication History: Pub. 2013; Addendum 2014-03-24
Abstract: High-performance media networks support professional quality audio (16 bit, 44,1 kHz and higher) with low latencies (less than 10 milliseconds) compatible with live sound reinforcement. The level of network performance required to meet these requirements is available on local-area networks and is achievable on enterprise-scale networks. A number of networked audio systems have been developed to support high-performance media networking but until now there were no recommendations for operating these systems in an interoperable manner. This standard provides comprehensive interoperability recommendations in the areas of synchronization, media clock identification, network transport, encoding and streaming, session description and connection management.
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AES68-2014: AES standard for audio connectors - XL Connectors to Improve Electromagnetic Compatibility
Printing Date: 2014-11-17
Publication History: Pub. 2014-11-17
Abstract: This standard specifies a variant of the standard XLR connector that provides improved shell-to-shell connection to aid the rejection of RF interference. While maintaining compatibility with existing XLR connectors, a circumferential connection between the connector shells is added.
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AES-1id-2012: AES Information Document for Acoustics - Plane wave tubes - Design and practice
Printing Date: 2013-02-11
Publication History: Pub. 1991, Revised 2012
Abstract: The AES2-2012 standard "AES standard for acoustics - Methods of measuring and specifying the performance of loudspeakers for professional applications - Drive units", calls for the use of plane-wave tube measurement of horn drivers. Because many variations and results are possible, depending on the details of construction of plane-wave tubes, this document discusses those variations for the purpose of encouraging further experimentation.

This 2012 edition is a revision of AES 1id-1991. Additional uses of a plane-wave tube are listed. Further tests were performed to compare a distant microphone location with a close location to test the hypothesis that non-plane-wave radiation would be more accurately measured. A termination method is described. A modern method of calibration is referenced and summarized. (22 pages)
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AES-2id-2012: AES information document for digital audio engineering -- Guidelines for the use of the AES3 interface
Printing Date: 2012-10-11
Publication History: Pub. 1996; Rev. 2006; corrigendum 2007-06-15; Addenda 2010-02-19; Rev. 2012
Abstract: This document provides guidelines for the use of AES3, AES Recommended Practice for Digital Audio Engineering - Serial transmission format for two-channel linearly represented digital audio data, together with AES5, AES Recommended Practice For professional digital audio applications employing pulse-code modulation - Preferred sampling frequencies, AES11, AES Recommended Practice for Digital Audio Engineering - Synchronization of digital audio equipment in studio operations, and AES18, AES Recommended Practice for Digital Audio Engineering - Format for the user data channel of the AES digital audio interface.

Substantially revised and extended in 2006; and again in 2012 to harmonize with multi-part AES3-2009. (65 pages)
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AES-3id-2001 (w2010): AES information document for Digital audio engineering - Transmission of AES3 formatted data by unbalanced coaxial cable (WITHDRAWN)
Printing Date: 2010-07-09
Publication History: Pub. 1995; Rev. 2001; Reaffirmed 2006; WITHDRAWN 2010
Abstract: This document contains information regarding cables, cable equalizers, and receiver circuits including adaptors to or from standard AES3 equipment and cabling where it is required to transmit AES3 formatted signals over long distances (up to 1000 m), or in a video installation using analog video distribution equipment. It is not intended to be an alternative electrical specification to AES3, which is based on balanced, shielded, twisted-pair cable transmission over distances of up to 100 m. The information is based on studies and laboratory experiments discussed in a series of technical reports that have been partly summarized and included. (23 pages)

NOTE This document was WITHDRAWN on 2010-07-09. The reason for this withdrawal is that the content of AES-3id has been superseded by AES3-4-2009, Annex D (Normative) "Coaxial transmission", and by AES-2id Annex C "Coaxial cable adapters and equalizer characterization", and so this Information Document has become redundant.
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AES-4id-2001 (r2007): AES information document for room acoustics and sound reinforcement systems - Characterization and measurement of surface scattering uniformity
Printing Date: 2007-05-24
Publication History: Pub. 2001; Reaffirmed 2007; Stabilized 2008-09-22
Abstract: This document provides guidelines for characterizing the uniformity of scattering produced by surfaces from measurements or predictions of scattered polar responses. In this context, the surface scattering is quantified in terms of a single diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient is a measure of quality designed to be used by producers and users of surfaces that, either deliberately or accidentally, diffuse sound. It is also intended for use when needed by developers and users of geometric room acoustic models. The diffusion coefficient is not intended, however, to be blindly used as an input to current diffusion algorithms in geometric room acoustic models. The diffusion coefficient characterizes the sound reflected from a surface in terms of the uniformity of the scattered polar distribution. The information document details a free-field characterization method. (20 pages)
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AES-5id-1997 (r2009): AES information document for Room acoustics and sound reinforcement systems -- Loudspeaker modeling and measurement -- Frequency and angular resolution for measuring, presenting and predicting loudspeaker polar data
Printing Date: 2009-07-22
Publication History: Pub. 1997; Reaffirmed 2003, Reaffirmed 2009
Abstract: This document provides guidelines for measuring, presenting and predicting polar data from a single acoustic source or from an array of acoustic sources. It describes and quantifies measurement resolution, presentation resolution, prediction techniques and measurement environments. The information presented here is based on objective measurements and does not take subjective or psychoacoustic criteria into account. (27 pages)
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AES-6id-2006 (r2011): AES information document for digital audio - Personal computer audio quality measurements
Printing Date: 2011-10-05
Publication History: Pub. 2000; Revised 2006; Reaffirmed 2011
Abstract: This document focuses on the measurement of audio quality specifications in a PC environment. Each specification listed has a definition and an example measurement technique. Also included is a detailed description of example test setups to measure each specification.

There have been many improvements in PC audio since the original AES-6id document was published. This revision of AES-6id-2000 includes substantial updates that reflect the improvements in the PC sound sub-system, as well as some updates based on many real world measurements.(48 pages)

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AES-10id-2005 (r2011): AES information document for digital audio engineering - Engineering guidelines for the multichannel audio digital interface, AES10 (MADI)
Printing Date: 2011-04-26
Publication History: Pub. 1995; Reaffirmed 2000; Revised 2005; Reaffirmed 2011
Abstract: This document provides guidance for areas of application of the MADI standard (AES10) that might be unclear. It is not intended to replace AES10, but to supplement it in those areas that are not suitable for definition in a standards document. This revision has been substantially re-organised and updated (12 pages)
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AES-11id-2006 (r2012): AES Information document for preservation of audio recordings - Extended term storage environment for multiple media archives
Printing Date: 2012-10-11
Publication History: Pub. 2006; Reaffirmed 2012
Abstract: This information document provides guidelines for archivists faced with storing a variety of audio, still image and moving image media in a single storage environment. This circumstance is faced by many archivists in small and medium size archives that must preserve and make available the wide variety of media from nitrate film to optical discs. These guidelines provide recommendations to harmonize storage recommendations contained in standards and recommended practices published by the AES and the International Standards Organization (ISO). (13 pages)
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AES-12id-2006 (r2011): AES Information Document for digital audio measurements - Jitter performance specifications
Printing Date: 2011-10-05
Publication History: Pub: 2007-03-19; reaffirmed 2011
Abstract: The question of sample-clock quality is a perennial one for digital audio equipment designers, yet most chip makers provide very little information about the jitter performance of their products. Consequently, equipment designers are sometimes caught out by jitter issues. The increasing use of packet-based communications and class-D amplification is throwing these matters into sharper relief.

This information document reviews various ways of characterizing and quantifying jitter, and refines several of them for audio purposes. It also attempts to present a common, unambiguous terminology. Its focus includes wideband jitter, baseband jitter, jitter spectra, period jitter, long-term jitter and jitter signatures. Comments are made on jitter transfer through phase-locked loops and on the jitter susceptibility of audio converters. (25 pages)

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AES-14id-2010: AES information document for interconnections - Universal jack for IEC 60603-11 and B gauge 6,35 mm plugs
Printing Date: 2010-10-28
Publication History: Pub. 2010
Abstract: Users of test equipment and portable audio equipment such as mixers and direct-injection (DI) boxes, may have to handle 'consumer' type equipment that uses the IEC 60603-11 3 contact (tip-ring-sleeve, or TRS) 6,3 mm plug connector and also professional equipment that uses the B-gauge connector. Traditionally, this has required the use of numerous ad-hoc adapters and connecting leads with different plugs at each end. Neither solution is very convenient and may be unreliable.

Jack connectors that can accommodate both types of plug have existed for some time, but are not well known. Some TRS jacks will accommodate both types of plug but are not specified by the manufacturer for such use. Clause 5 recommends jack dimensions that are specified to have the required "universal" capability. This does not imply that there may not be others.
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AES-16id-2010 (r2013): AES information document for transfer technologies - Stylus dimensions and selection
Printing Date: 2013-08-15
Publication History: Pub. 2010; Reaff. 2013
Abstract: This information document is aimed at the archivist, librarian or technician who needs to make transfers from mechanical sound records made during the past 100 years or more. Each period had its own technological style and there was little effective standardisation until the late 1940s. Making satisfactory and efficient transfers from these records means choosing an appropriate stylus to suit both the style of manufacture and also the physical condition of the particular specimen. This brief document sets out some guidance on stylus choice for vertical recordings on cylinders and discs, coarse-groove lateral recordings on disc, and comparatively modern microgroove records in both mono and stereo.
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AES-21id-2011: AES Information Document for audio-file transfer and exchange - Screen-less navigation for high-resolution audio on Blu-ray Disc™
Printing Date: 2011-04-26
Publication History: Pub. 2011
Abstract: High-resolution audio, presented as uncompressed LPCM, has been waiting for a suitable transport format for some time. The Blu-ray Disc (BD) format offers such a transport and supports the necessary linear and lossless codecs as part of its basic specification. While many BD players can be found in home theatre and games environments, there are some issues that need to be addressed before they can be introduced into a hi-fi environment that does not have a screen to present visual menus for audio stream setup and track selection. This recommended method specifies a structure for authoring a BD ROM to enable playback in screen-less consumer systems, and to provide simple track selection from the remote control.
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AES-R1-1997: AES project report for professional audio -- Specifications for audio on high-capacity media
Printing Date: 1999-03-31
Publication History: Pub. 1997; Stabilized 2008-09-22
Abstract: This document is the report of Task group SC-02-M, a task force within the Audio Engineering Society Standards Committee (AESSC), which studied the future of high-capacity audio media [such as DVD] for over one year with input from more than 80 persons and organizations. (22 pages)
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AES-R2-2004: AES project report for articles on professional audio and for equipment specifications -- Notations for expressing levels (Revision of AES-R2-1998)
Printing Date: 2004-02-04
Publication History: Pub. 1998; Rev. 2004
Abstract: This document describes the style for levels standardized in IEC 60027-3, Letter symbols to be used in electrical technology -- Part 3: Logarithmic Quantities and Units, and the power and voltage level clauses of IEC 60268-2 Sound system equipment -- Part 2: Explanation of general terms and calculation methods, and summarizes and reviews the presently-used notations for expressing levels in condensed or abbreviated form, what expressions are used, and what quantities and reference quantities are implied. The original document of 1998 was revised 2004-02 to delete considering the adoption of 1 V as the reference quantity for new work in audio engineering. (7 pages)
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AES-R3-2001: AES standards project report on single programme connector -- Compatibility for patch panels of tip-ring-sleeve connectors
Printing Date: 2004-10-13
Publication History: Pub. 2001
Abstract: This report covers the concentric connectors known as phone plugs and jacks that are widely used in the audio industry for the interconnection of sound system components as general-use consumer tip-ring-sleeve (TRS) types as well as for the interconnection of broadcast and other professional systems, such as professional TRS types. Because differing dimensions specified by various standards often result in mechanical and, as a consequence, electrical incompatibilities among the various TRS jacks and plugs, this report surveys the standards, connectors, and possible incompatibility problems. (7 pages)
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AES-R4-2007: AES standards project report Guidelines for AES Recommended practice for digital audio engineering - Transmission of digital audio over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks
Printing Date: 2007-06-18
Publication History: Pub. 2002; revised 2007
Abstract: This document is intended to provide background information of use to implementers of AES47, both information on why certain decisions were made and also hints on aspects of the construction of conformant ATM equipment.

The report was revised in 2007 to correspond to the 2006 edition of AES47 and to take account of other events such as the publication of AES51, AES52, and AES53. (21 pages)

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AES-R6-2011: AES project report - Guidelines for AES standard for digital audio engineering - High-resolution multi-channel audio interconnection (HRMAI)
Printing Date: 2011-08-24
Publication History: Ed.1 2005; Rev. 2011
Abstract: This edition revises AES-R6-2005 to complement the latest revision of AES50.

This report is intended to accompany AES50-2005 "High-resolution multi-channel audio interconnection (HRMAI)". It provides additional background, rationale and implementation advice. It should be read in conjunction with AES50-2005. In particular, the first section of this document provides an overview of the technology, which may aid understanding of the context of the standard.
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AES-R7-2006: AES standards project report - Considerations for accurate peak metering of digital audio signals
Printing Date: 2006-09-04
Publication History: Pub. 2006; Stablized 2008-09-22
Abstract: Peak meters in digital audio systems often register peak sample values rather than true peak levels. Such meters are simple to implement, but they do not always register the true peak value of the audio signal.

Problems occur because the actual peak values of a sampled signal usually fall between sampling instants rather than precisely at a single sampling instant. This results in several peak-sample meter anomalies, including inconsistent peak readings, unexpected overloads, and under-reading and beating of metered tones.

In order to meter the maximum amplitude, or true-peak value, of a sampled signal it is necessary to over sample (or up sample) the signal, essentially using interpolation to increase the sampling frequency of the signal and thus recreating the original signal between the existing samples.

This report discusses criteria for the design of a true-peak meter and proposes appropriate over-sampling ratios to achieve true-peak metering accuracy.

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AES-R8-2007: AES standards project report - Synchronisation of digital audio over wide areas
Printing Date: 2007-11-26
Publication History: Pub. 2007.
Abstract: When several digital signals are combined in a mixing desk or other equipment, they must share the same sample timing clock. If all the signals originate within the same studio, it is sufficient to synchronise all the equipment within that studio. With the introduction of transmission of signals in digital form between studios, the problem takes on a new dimension.

This document is intended to provide guidance on synchronisation issues to implementers of systems in which an audio signal originated in digital form in one location is transmitted over a digital network to another location.
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AES-R9-2008: AES standards project report - Considerations for standardising AES metadata sets
Printing Date: 2008-03-12
Publication History: Pub. 2008
Abstract: Digital management of audio assets - in projects, inventories, collections, libraries, and archives - will increasingly be controlled by metadata; that is, data that describes the audio in some way. Some audio-related metadata already exists in metadata sets developed by other communities, however there is a need within the audio community for more specific and detailed audio metadata.

The question was raised concerning how the upcoming AES metadata standards might be handled in a way that would be consistent across a number of AES documents, and also capable of being harmonised with relevant external metadata sets such as the SMPTE metadata dictionary standards (RP210 metadata elements, RP2009 metadata groups etc.) and the IEC work in the same field.

This report discusses primary issues and outlines some elementary considerations.

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AES-R10-2008: AES standards project report - Use cases for networks in professional audio
Printing Date: 2008-08-25
Publication History: Pub: 2008-08-25
Abstract: Use cases for some advanced audio applications using the IEEE 1394 Higher Performance Serial Bus were explored by joint task groups set up by AES Standards Working Group SC-02-12 and the 1394TA Pro Audio Working Group. The work was subdivided into three application areas; Recording, Live Sound, and Installations. This report summarises the output of these three groups.
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AES-R11-2009: AES standards project report - Methods for the measurement of audio video synchronization error
Printing Date: 2009-12-03
Publication History: First published 2009
Abstract: The synchronization of audio and video (A-V sync, or lip sync) in television continues to pose a problem for producers and broadcasters, because errors in synchronization continue to be a source of audience dissatisfaction.

Although digital television includes timing information that should keep audio and video properly synchronized, this in itself can simply be another source of problems. New display technologies, and separate audio and video signal paths within the living room, present new challenges for lip sync.

Project AES-X177 was started in an effort to help with creating the solution to the problem. It had the aim of standardizing a simple method of measuring lip sync. The task proved more difficult than anticipated and the project was subsequently closed. However this report gathers together two relevant documents that were produced by the British Broadcasting Corporation during the life-time of the project. One is a study of factors that affect perception of lip sync, the other is a study of operational practices in a real broadcast chain.
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AES-R12: Standards project report - AES67 Interoperability PlugFest - Munich 2014
Printing Date: 2014-11-24
Publication History: Published 2014-11-24
Abstract: AES67-2013 is a standard for high-performance streaming audio-over-IP interoperability This report summarizes the AES67 interoperability test event ("plugfest") held at the Institut für Rundfunktechnik (IRT), Munich, Germany on 27 to 30 October 2014. Ten companies tested 16 products against each other to confirm interoperability. The results are presented, together with the results of a range of tests of optional operational modes described in the standard.
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Special Publications
Recognising an international need for calibration tools, the AES Standards Working Group on Transfer Technologies (SC-03-02) initiated a project to calibration playback equipment for coarse-groove 78 rpm records. The result is now available as a boxed set of two identical 12-inch vinyl discs, catalogue number AES-S001-064. The two discs allow one to be used as a day-to-day working tool while the other may be stored as a master reference. Read more...
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AES - Audio Engineering Society