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Bulk download - click topic to download Zip archive of all papers related to that topic:   Acoustic Measurement    Ambisonics    Arrays/LSP    Audio Quality/Standards    AV Art    Education    ELAC/Audio Tech    Games/Interactive    HRTF    Music Analysis    Psychoacoustics    Psychology    Reproduction, 3D Audio    Reproduction: 3D Audio    Synthesis   

 

Real-time impulse response measurement: Swept-sine technique with minimum latency for reflection and position sensing

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State-of-the art impulse response measurement technique imposes a measurement latency that constrains real-time application. This paper proposes a first swept-sine technique that can update subsequent impulse responses within a latency of one recording sample. We verify the technique for various LTI and non-LTI measurement setups by driving a mannequin through a test room. The extracted impulse responses correspond widely to conventional swept-sine technique, while we achieve an eight times higher update rate with our implementation on a conventional laptop. The observed mean error for the LTI case is -60 dB, and builds up to -35 dB with increasing LTI violation. We anticipate, the technique can significantly improve the resolution of ultrasound sensing, monitor quick changes in reflective environment or extract impulse responses for augmented reality applications at immersive update rate.

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Beamforming using two rigid circular loudspeaker arrays: Numerical simulations and experiments

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Beamforming is an important technique in studies involving loudspeaker arrays, and conventional beamforming studies use linear, circular, and spherical arrays. In a previous study, the present authors introduced a model involving two circular loudspeaker arrays to reproduce focused sources; the two arrays have rigid baffles, and their multiple scattering offers better performance. The present paper reports on investigations into implementing beamforming with this array model, the performance of which is evaluated using a minimum-variance distortionless-response beamformer. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method outperforms a single circular array at lower frequencies, and the numerical results agree with those from experiments conducted in an anechoic chamber.

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Enhanced Polygonal Audience Line Curving for Line Source Arrays

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Line source arrays (LSAs) are used for large-scale sound reinforcement aiming at sound fields that are as homoge-neous as possible over the whole audio bandwidth. The deployed loudspeaker cabinets are rigged with different tilt angles and/or are electronically controlled in order to provide the intended coverage of the audience zones and to avoid radiation towards reflective ceilings, sidewalls or residential areas. In this contribution, enhancements of the analytical polygonal audience line curving (PALC) approach are presented. PALC was introduced for finding appropriate LSA cabinet tilt angles with respect to the geometry of the receiver area and the intended coverage. The PALC extension includes methods to use discrete sets of inter cabinet tilt angles, to control the target coverage by using weighting factors and to deal with non-continuous audience lines, i.e., zones which are not to be reinforced. The extended PALC is evaluated in comparison with a typical standard LSA curving scheme. An implementation of PALC is provided as an open web application.

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Delivering Personalised 3D Audio to Multiple Listeners: Determining the Perceptual Trade-Off Between Acoustic Contrast and Cross-Talk

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3D audio for multiple listeners can be created by combining a personal sound system with cross-talk cancellation to direct binaural content to each listener’s ears. However, the relative perceptual importance of controlling these two aspects of the sound field reproduction has not been established. Two headphone-based experiments were carried out in order to understand the trade-offs between acoustic contrast and cross-talk cancellation performance. The first experiment used a method-of-adjustment approach to determine the thresholds at which a) an interfering programme was no longer distracting, with varying cross-talk in the target programme, and b) the threshold at which a target binaural audio programme was considered to be enveloping, in the presence of interfering audio. The second experiment used pairwise preference ratings to determine the trade-off in preference between stimuli with different levels of acoustic contrast and cross-talk cancellation. It was found that achieving good acoustic contrast should be prioritised over cross-talk cancellation in a system combining sound zones and binaural technology, but that for a certain level of interference, reducing cross-talk improves listener preference. Moreover, diffuse interferers produced higher thresholds of distraction than localised ones, implying that sound zone systems should consider the spatial characteristics of sound in the dark zone.

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Propagation Loss of Low Frequency Horn Loudspeakers:Is “throw” a real phenomenon?

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Horn loading is frequently used in sound reinforcement to increase efficiency and directivity of high and mid frequency transducers. Low frequency horn loudspeakers are less common due to their large size. Increases in available amplifier power and thermal dissipation in transducers have led to widespread use of high power, low efficiency dual 18” bass reflex loudspeakers. However, some manufacturers and enthusiasts continue to develop and use low frequency horn loudspeakers for their high efficiency and subjective audio quality. In the fields of live event production and noise control, there is sometimes a perception, or “urban myth” that horn low frequency loudspeakers project or “throw” sound a further distance than direct radiating low frequency loudspeakers. This is either considered to be beneficial, or problematic depending on the context. Considering the relevant acoustic theory, it is not immediately apparent why this should be the case, providing the loudspeakers are level matched and of similar physical dimensions. Unfortunately, there is very little investigation of low frequency horns in previous literature to aid in providing a definitive answer. Measurements in this paper demonstrate that horn and direct radiating low frequency loudspeakers and arrays closely follow the theory, and the difference in propagation loss is within measurement uncertainty. The implication for noise control of outdoor events, is that bass loudspeaker size and type are not especially relevant factors, and focus should instead be on system/array design and site layout.

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Individualized HRTF-based Binaural Renderer for Higher-Order Ambisonics

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Ambisonics is a promising spatial sound technique in augmented and virtual reality. In our previous study, we modeled the individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) using deep neural networks based on spatial principal component analysis. This paper proposes an individualized HRTF-based binaural renderer for the higher-order Ambisonics. The binaural renderer is implemented by filtering the virtual loudspeaker signals using individualized HRTFs. We perform subjective experiments to evaluate generic and individualized binaural renderers. Results show that the individualized binaural renderer has front-back confusion rates that are significantly lower than those of the generic binaural renderer. Therefore, we validate that using individualized HRTFs to convolve with those virtual loudspeaker signals to generate virtual sound at an arbitrary spatial direction still performs better than those using generic HRTFs. In addition, by measuring or modeling individual’s HRTFs in a small set of directions, our proposed binaural renderer system effectively predict individual’s HRTFs in arbitrary spatial directions.

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Comparing immersive sound capture techniques optimized for acoustic music recording through binaural reproduction

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A study was undertaken to compare three immersive sound capture techniques optimized for acoustic music recording, within the context of binaural audio reproduction. 3D audio stimuli derived from 9-channel (4+5+0) recordings of a solo piano were binaurally rendered and presented to listeners over headphones. Subjects compared these stimuli in terms of several salient perceptual auditory attributes. Results of the double-blind listening test found no significant differences between two of the sound capture techniques, “spaced” and “near-coincident,” for the perceptual auditory attributes “envelopment,” “naturalness of sound scene,” and “naturalness of timbre.” The spaced technique, however, was shown to create a larger virtual image of the sound source than the near-coincident technique. The coincident technique was found to create an immersive sound scene that occupies a different perceptual space from the other two techniques, delivering less envelopment and naturalness.

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Higher order ambisonics compression method based on independent component analysis

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Recently the development of multimedia applications requires a flexible method to represent spatial sound, and higher order ambisonics (HOA) draws more and more attention due to its flexibility between the recording and playback end. To reduce the cost for storage and transmission, some compression methods were developed. However, they result in discontinuity between frames. Here we propose a framework in which independent component analysis (ICA) is used to extract foreground components from HOA signal. We achieve smooth transition by utilizing un-mixing matrices from previous frames. A complete compression system was constructed and a dataset with simulated and recorded signals was built. Subjective experiments provided evidence for the effectiveness of proposed method.

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Ambisonic Decoder Test Methodologies based on Binaural Reproduction

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The comparative evaluation of the quality of different Ambisonic decoding strategies presents a number of challenges, most notably the lack of a suitable reference signal other than the original, real-world audio scene. In this paper a new test methodology for the evaluation of Ambisonic decoders is presented, using a virtual loudspeaker, binaural rendering approach. A sample study using a MUSHRA test paradigm and three different types of Ambisonic decoders was conducted and the results analyzed using a variety of different statistical approaches. The results indicate significant differences between decoders for some attributes and virtual loudspeaker layouts.

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Lumped parameter thermal model for fast voice coil temperature prediction

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Voice coil (VC) temperature prediction is extremely important to make choices on the magnetic circuit during the pre-design and design phases. The aim of this study is to develop a model able to provide a quick response on the steady-state VC temperature. A lumped parameter thermal model describing the relevant heat transfer phenomena occurring in a working loudspeaker was developed. It was validated against measurements of VC, polar plate and magnet temperatures reached after 2 hours of sinusoidal or pink noise excitation. Differences between predicted and measured temperatures were not significant. By providing a fast and relatively accurate response, this model can be used for VC temperature prediction in the (pre-)design phase.

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                 Search Results (Displaying 1-10 of 57 matches)
AES - Audio Engineering Society