AES E-Library

AES E-Library

Type 1 and Type 2 Errors in the Statistical Analysis of Listening Tests

When the conventional 0.05 significance level is used to analyze listening test data, employing a small number of trials or listeners can produce an unexpectedly high risk of concluding that audible differences are inaudible (type 2 error). The risk can be both large absolutely and large relative to the risk of concluding that inaudible differences are audible (type 2 error). this constitutes systematic bias against those who believe that differences are audible between well-designed electronic components that are spectrally equated and not overdriven. A statistical table is introduced that enables readers to look up type 1 and type 2 error risks without calculation. Ways to manipulate the risks are discussed, a quantitative measure of a listening test's fairness is introduced, and implications for reviewers of the listening test literature are discussed.

JAES Volume 34 Issue 6 pp. 437-453; June 1986
Publication Date:

Click to purchase paper as a non-member or login as an AES member. If your company or school subscribes to the E-Library then switch to the institutional version. If you are not an AES member and would like to subscribe to the E-Library then Join the AES!

This paper costs $33 for non-members and is free for AES members and E-Library subscribers.

Learn more about the AES E-Library

E-Library Location:

Start a discussion about this paper!

AES - Audio Engineering Society