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Perceptual validation of the extended energy vector model for audio objects localization in large audience areas

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Spatial audio's progression from delta stereophony to techniques like DBAP, VBAP, MDAP, and Ambisonic panning, also including Wave Field Synthesis (WFS) with its extensive multi-loudspeaker arrays, has focused on achieving precise spatialization over large listening areas. This listening experiment evaluates localization errors and apparent source width of audio objects rendered with NESS algorithm (distance-based amplitude and delay panning) within a 200-seat amphitheatre. Factors such as loudspeaker setup, source and listener positions, and audio stimulus types were analysed. Results indicate a strong correlation between perceived and predicted source directions using the extended energy vector model; however, the model's predictions for apparent source width were less consistent. These outcomes highlight the model's utility and suggest further refinement for source width estimation.

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