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Robust Binaural Measurements in the Ear Canal Using a Two-Microphone Array

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Accurate binaural rendering requires accurate reproduction of binaural signals at the eardrum, which in turn requires adequate binaural technology. We propose a method to measure head-related & headphone transfer functions with a two-microphone array in the ear canal. By implementing a cardioid directional pattern, the forward and reverse propagating sound pressure components are measured separately, thus avoiding the influence of standing waves in the ear canal on the measurements. The method is useful in filter design for individualized binaural rendering that, compared with the blocked-canal method, does not assume acoustically ’open’ headphones to be used. The method also mitigates the excessive sensitivity to microphone position of regular open-canal measurements. Validation measurements are conducted using a natural scale replica ear and a MEMS microphone array.

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