When a human perceives a space by hearing, horizontal sound image localization and spaciousness are sensed based on ILD (Inter-aural level differences) and ITD (Inter-aural time differences). However, in the vertical plane, spectral cues and directional bands caused by differences in the frequency characteristic of the direction of sound caused by the ear shape are crucial. Frequencies below 4 kHz do not contribute significantly to vertical localization. The authors investigated the frequency bandwidth required to reproduce the top layer within a 3D audio system by comparing the difference between various full-band 22.2 multichannel audio stimuli and those filtered stimuli to restrict the frequency bandwidth of top layer reproduction. The results of an experiment referring to PEST demonstrated cut-off frequencies were found for some sources to be around 1 kHz. Comparisons of the left and right ear signals measured by a dummy head revealed a significant difference in the high-frequency range above around 1 kHz when the head is tilted. This suggested that head tilt is important for the perception of the top layers and that the band above around 1 kHz plays an important role in this effect.
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