Helmholtz resonators are frequently used in audio devices to tune the frequency responses for better performance and listening experience. One of the key challenges in designing this type of Helmholtz resonator is the achievement of appropriate damping without using damping materials. The utilization of nonlinear acoustic damping generated by the airflow separation in Helmholtz resonators is an effective method to address this issue. In this study, loudspeaker systems coupled with Helmholtz resonators were modeled based on the equivalent circuit method (ECM), and the nonlinear damping effect of Helmholtz resonators is considered. The frequency responses of the loudspeaker systems are analyzed using the ECM model and validated experimentally. The influence of nonlinear acoustic damping is investigated. Based on the ECM model, an effective method to tune the acoustic damping of Helmholtz resonators is proposed.
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