This paper introduces higher-order digital equalization filters designed using various transforms on lower-order filter prototypes. The filters are designed in the analog domain as state-space filters. The bilinear transform is applied in real time as a trapezoidal integrator on the state equations to discretize the filters while still retaining the time-varying stability properties of the analog prototypes. It is demonstrated that factoring the higher-order filters into second-order sections before discretization introduces transient distortion in time-varying situations; the filters are then designed and implemented as fourth-order sections in the state domain with interpolation because it is more efficient to maintain filter stability and bounding at the higher order in the same time-varying conditions.
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