This paper reports on a survey of critical listening training offered at tertiary education providers in the USA, UK, Australia, and Canada. The purpose of the investigation is to explore the concept of mental representations in educational contexts, as instructional materials do not always consider this aspect despite a rich research terrain in the field. The analysis shows a wide diversity of instructional methods used, seemingly influenced by course subject matter and institution business model. It also reveals a need to accurately define the concept of critical listening, depending on the context of its use. This study provides the background to a proposed evaluation of the effectiveness of mental representation models applied to new instructional designs.
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