The vented-box loudspeaker system is studied through a small-signal equivalent circuit model via the impedance function. Some traditional models are found to inadequately represent the system losses, lumping them together in an effort to simplify the design process. Here, a low-frequency small-signal equivalent circuit model is proposed, incorporating five loss elements. The impedance function is derived, and system parameters are determined by curve-fitting the impedance function to measured impedance data. It is shown that the reactive elements determine the critical frequencies, and the lossy elements determine the Q-factors or contribute to the impedance level. Moreover, the lossy elements affect the curve-fit in a unique way, allowing their values to be quantified.
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