A new synthesizer technology is demonstrated that tracks the fundamental frequency of virtually any acoustic or electric instrument played monotonically. This technology relies on a mixed analog-digital application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), which contains a very fast frequency-locked loop (FLL) that tracks with the minimum physically achievable latency of one audio cycle. The ASIC also contains a novel fundamental frequency detection circuit composed of two switched-capacitor peak detectors with decay time proportional to the fundamental period of the audio signal and a novel switched-capacitor, zero-ripple envelope follower. This frequency-tracking technology is fast enough to implement an audio-to-CV or even, with the addition of a simple microcontroller, an audio-to-MIDI solution in real time with very high accuracy and negligible latency.
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