A bird recording was compared against an airplane take-off sample at various azimuth and elevation angles in this study. A total of 33 source positions were tested, ranging from 0° to 180° azimuth and -30° to 90° elevation angles with 30° intervals. The results showed that both perceived azimuth and elevation are significantly affected by the source frequency content. Furthermore, a significant azimuth shift towards the lateral plane was observed on the off-center axis. This effect was stronger for the elevated positions on the rear hemisphere. Additionally, the pitch-height effect was present and was most dominant on the median plane and frontal hemisphere. Last, confusion errors were present for both stimuli; however, they were significant only on the median plane.
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