Sound localization from the ceiling is important for 3D surround-sound systems, such as Dolby Atmos, 22.2 channel and higher-order ambisonics. Such systems are difficult to set up in a typical home environment owing to loudspeakers that must be placed on the ceiling. This problem can be solved by using the reflected sound from the ceiling through loudspeaker-array beamforming, such as in commercial sound bars. In the beamforming method, the listener always hears the jammer sound (side lobe) before he/she hears the main sound from the ceiling. To date, the relationship between the time and level differences in the direct and reflected sounds for sound image localization at the reflected position on the ceiling is not clear. This paper investigates this relationship through listening experiments. We also confirmed the localization at the ceiling by using a 32-element spherical loudspeaker array.
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