The perception of source location using multi-loudspeaker amplitude panning is considered. While there exist many perceptual models for pairwise panning, relatively few studies consider the general multi-loudspeaker case. This paper evaluates panning scenarios in which a source is panned on the boundary or within the volume bounded by discrete loudspeakers, referred to as boundary and interior pans respectively. Listening results reveal the following: (1) pans to a single loudspeaker yield lowest localization error, (2) pairwise pans tend to be consistently localized closer to the listener than single loudspeaker pans, (3) largest errors occur when the virtual source is panned close to the listener, (4) interior pans are accurately perceived and, surprisingly, in some cases more accurately than pairwise pans.
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