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Direct and Indirect Listening Test Methods—A Discussion Based on Audio-Visual Spatial Coherence Experiments

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This paper reviews the pros and cons of using direct measures (e.g. preference, annoyance) and indirect measures (e.g. “subconscious” EEG measures and reaction times, “RTs”) to determine how viewers perceive audio and audio-visual attributes. The methodologies are discussed in relation to spatial coherence testing (whether audio/visual signals arrive from the same direction). Experimental results in coherence testing are described to illustrate problems with direct measures and improvements seen with RTs. Suggestions are made for the use of indirect measures in testing, including more sophisticated uses of RTs. It is concluded that indirect measures offer novel insights into listener evaluations of audio-visual experiences but are not always suitable

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