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Micro-Speakers — Hybrids Between Headphones and Loudspeakers

Micro-speakers based on the electro-dynamical transduction principle show a particular transfer behavior, which cannot be described by conventional models developed for loudspeakers and headphones. This paper presents an advanced lumped parameter model, which considers dominant nonlinearities, time variance, visco-elastic behavior at low frequencies, modal vibration and sound radiation at high frequencies. The relevance of the new model parameters for the design and evaluation of micro-speakers and other transducers are discussed.

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