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A Loudness Function for Analog and Digital Sound Systems Based on Equal Loudness Level Contours

A new and better loudness compensation has been designed based on the differences between the Equal Loudness Level Contours (ELLC) in ISO 226:2003. Sound productions are normally being mixed at a high Mixing Level (ML) in dB but often played at a lower listening level, which means that the perceived frequency balance will been changed both for LL lower or higher than ML. The differences in ELLC ask for a level based equalization using fractional-order filters. A designing technique for both analog and digital fractional-order filters has been developed. The analog solution is based on OPAMs and the digital solution is realized in a 16/32 bit fixed point DSP and could be implemented in any sound producing system.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society