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Further Investigations in the Emulation of Nonlinear Systems with Volterra Series

The nonlinearities of audio devices can be emulated by means of a nonlinear convolution method, which is based on a particular case of the Volterra series called the Diagonal Volterra series. The Volterra kernel characterizes the nonlinear audio device being tested. Since the behavior of a nonlinear audio system may be influenced by input signal level and since Volterra kernels themselves depend upon the level of the input signal, a numerical and experimental method is presented that approximates the kernels for a continuous range of levels with a limited number of measurements. The model can be extended to handle an arbitrary order of nonlinearities to better emulate the harmonics of low and medium frequencies. This approach is particularly useful for such devices as a tube preamplifier.

JAES Volume 63 Issue 9 pp. 671-683; September 2015
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AES - Audio Engineering Society