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A Theoretical Analysis of Sound Localization, with Application to Amplitude Panning

Below 700 Hz sound fields can be approximated well over a region of space that encloses the human head, using the acoustic pressure and gradient. With this representation convenient expressions are found for the resulting Interaural Time Difference (ITD) and Interaural Level Difference (ILD). This formulation facilitates the investigation of various head-related phenomena of natural and synthesized fields. As an example, perceived image direction is related to head direction and the sound field description. This result is then applied to a general amplitude panning system and can be used to create images that are stable with respect to head direction.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society