There are several possible methods to measure the loudspeaker driver electrical impedance. Those methods have followed the development of measurement instruments starting from the era of the simple needle voltmeters to the PC based instruments widely available today. This paper will go through the theory and practice of impedance measurements with a series of examples where the pros and cons of each method are highlighted using real measurements. Effect of current sensor choice, noise, vibrations and test level will be discussed in detail.
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