It has been argued (Toole, J.A.E.S. June 1982) that adequate controls in listening tests can produce results that have meaning in an absolute sense. The results of large-scale controlled listening tests have been analyzed with a view to defining the precision of subjective measurements of sound quality. The findings were highly significant. Listeners produced results that were in general agreement, but the agreement was improved by grouping listeners according to audiometric performance or judgment variability. Listeners with a common form of hearing impairment exhibited judgments that were distinctive in terms of consistency and bias.
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