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Underwater Loudspeakers

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High-fidelity underwater sound sources are used to play back variaous marine animal noises, for biological studies, and to create sound fields for calibration of hydrophones. Some moving-coil transducers used for these purposes are described. The problems associated with high-compliance diaphragms in the water medium where the specific acoustic impedance is high are discussed, and performance characteristics of two transducers are given.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society