An important consideration in the low frequency application of any active device is its noise characteristics. Noise associated with solid state devices is generally considered in two separate categories. The more troublesome, and the one that affects audio and sub-audio application, is the 1/f noise, which has not yet been completely theoretically analyzed. The power spectrum of 1/f noise is continuous and varies inversely as frequency, which is equivalent to a voltage roll off of 3 db per octave. For the junction gate field-effect transistor Sah has shown that the dominant low frequency noise source is the random emission of trapped electrons and holes from the Shockley-Read-Hall centers in the transition region of the gate junction. Van Der Ziel has shown at frequencies above the 1/f region that the limiting noise mechanism is thermal noise of the conducting channel.
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