Methods using pair-wise loudspeaker and crosstalk cancellation processing are described to enhance 3-D spatial audio rendering in multi-channel, multi-loudspeaker environments. The pair-wise paradigm is extended to triad arrays of non-coplanar loudspeakers with transformations described to accommodate alternative numbers of loudspeakers and their locations. The techniques are suitable for discrete multi-channel coding formats including PCM, AC-3, DTS and DSD with applications spanning home theater and interactive virtual environments.
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