This paper will give an overview of the current techniques and systems for creating virtual 3D sound reproduction using only two loudspeakers. This work has concentrated on improving the ability of audio systems to produce -images- of sound sources perceived by the listener. In particular we highlight the development of a very specific virtual-imaging technique based on the Stereo Dipole, which uses a pair of very closely spaced loudspeakers to produce virtual images. The major advance associated with this work involves the precise form of the acoustic field produced by the loudspeakers, which makes it an ideal means for producing virtual images. Topics addressed will include a description of the physical form and perceptual responses of the acoustic fields produced by such imaging systems. The authors introduced a physical spherical model to analyze the sound field around a listener and a perceptual model based on binaural sound localization. These models were applied to evaluate a generalized 3D virtual sound system based on multichannel recording and multiple virtual-source generation using the Stereo Dipole system.
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