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Dependence of Timbre on the Tonal Loudness Produced by Musical Instruments

To determine if the timbre of nonpercussive musical instruments are dependent upon the intensities with which they are played, musically competent subjects were asked to identify the various original dynamic markings with which the instruments were played from tones equalized in loudness by adjustment of the gain upon reproduction. Confusion matrices display the results. The timbre of nonpercussive musical instruments is, at most, a weak function of the intensity with which they are played, with a few exceptions.

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JAES Volume 12 Issue 1 pp. 28-31; January 1964
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AES - Audio Engineering Society