An optimal approach to auditory display design for commercial aircraft would utilize both spatialized (3-D) audio techniques and active noise cancellation for safer operations. Results from several aircraft simulator studies conducted at NASA-Ames Research Center are reviewed, including traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) warnings, spoken orientation beacons for gate identification and collision avoidance on the ground, and hardware for improved speech intelligibility. : The implications of hearing loss among pilots is also considered.
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