The use of noise-shaping techniques in A/D and D/A converters is well understood and covered extensively in the literature. These same techniques can be applied to numerous other domains with surprising results. Three different noise-shaping algorithms are discussed. The first example shows that time quantization can replace amplitude quantization, allowing circuits that mimic the behavior of analog PLLs but are clocked with a fixed high-frequency clock. In the second example, a noise-shaped scrambling algorithm is shown which can linearize multibit oversampled converters by shaping the noise that occurs due to element mismatch. The final example shows that a neural network can exhibit noise-shaping behavior with the appropriate selection of coefficients.
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