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An Engineering Study of the Four-Multiply Normalized Ladder Filter

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An engineering example of an orthogonal second-order digital all-pass filter impmementation is presented in a fully parametric audio equalizer application. Independent coefficients control frequency, Q, and boost/cut. The noise and scaling properties of the four-multiply normalized ladder structure are analyzed and shown graphically.

JAES Volume 41 Issue 7/8 pp. 564-582; July 1993
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AES - Audio Engineering Society