In the piston range of a loudspeaker the sound pressure at a distant point is related to the amplitude of vibration of the diaphragm by a simple expression. The amplitude of vibration of the piston can be measured easily with a traveling microscope at different frequencies and related to the response. Since reflected waves have little effect on the amplitude of vibration, accurate results can be obtained even in reverberant environments. The difficulty in measuring the reduced amplitude at higher frequencies imposes an upper frequency limit on this method of measurement.
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