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Audio Technology in Berlin to 1943: Development of Vacuum Tubes

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In 1908, R.V. Lieben invented the Electronic Relais, a bulb in which an electric current could be modulated by a grid electrode. Soon the new principle was improved upon. During the second decade of the century, the process of developing electron tubes for radio transmitters and receivers was amazing. Twin and triple systems connected internally in one bulb were the beginning of integrated circuits, used in amplifiers and receivers. By improving the performance stability tubes, more complex electronics problems could be solved.

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