Asynchronous Serial Communications
The core technology behind most computer-controlled and networked audio systems is asynchronous serial communications. This paper provides a tutorial on the theory and application of serial communications technologies common in the audio industry, such as MIDI and PA-422. General principles and terminology are discussed, including UARTs, protocols, and physical interfacing technologies such as RS-232, RS-422, RS-485, current loops, and fiber optics.
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