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The Operational Voltage-Controlled Element: Generalizing the VCA

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A unique enhancement of the standard VCA architecture, called the operational voltage-controlled element (OVCE), is described. Possessing the characteristics of both voltage-controlled amplifiers and operational amplifier, the OVCE is shown to implement a wide variety of voltage-controlled circuits, fundamentally falling into two classes, voltage-controlled amplifier and voltage-controlled potentiometer. Nonideal effects are discussed and compared to standard topologies. Various circuit possibilities are shown, including concepts related to the replacement of potentiometers in automated signal processors.

JAES Volume 39 Issue 10 pp. 775-784; October 1991
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