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The Evaluation of Microphones, Part 1: Measurements

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Differences in sound quality are observed when microphones are used in sound fields differing in directivity and diffusion. These differences are not explained by conventional microphone specifications. Using measurements that have been well proven in the evaluation of loudspeakers, several highly respected professional microphones of different types were tested. The measurements, made under both free-field and real-room conditions, indicate that several factors can cause timbral changes to recorded sounds, and can cause conflicts in timbral 'signatures' among direct, reflected, and reverberant components of sounds in rooms.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society