Some not well known aspects of analog tapes (biasing, distortion) will be discussed, this includes methods of measurements, calibration and finding the 'right' compromise. Bias has a variety of influences besides known changes in sensitivity ('loudness', frequency response) and maximum output level (3rd harmonic distortion, saturation). The paper discusses difference tone distortion, less known modulation effects, frequency response errors, and some secondary effects of automatic bias control circuits. Some data of high speed duplicating and distortion of involved amplifiers will also be presented.
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