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Measurement and Calculations of Non-Linearities of Headphone Transducers at Low Frequencies

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Converter systems on dynamic headphones as a rule have a considerable nonlinear distortion factor at very low frequencies and at high acoustic levels. The nonlinearity of the acoustic level as a function of the applied voltage is composed of various influencing variables: the main causes consist of a nonlinear spring characteristic of the mechanical system, which represents the restrained diaphragm, and of a non-homogeneity of the magnetic field in which the voice coil is located. An aid has been created by means of the measuring and computation processes described in the present piece of work, which allows an estimation of the behavior of the nonlinear distortion factor at low frequencies already at the stage of conception and design of new systems or of design modifications. The results are illustrated by way of graph evaluations using two different converter diaphragms as examples.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society