The analysis and the design of graphic equalizers are discussed. Useful properties of Hurwitz polynomials and positive real functions are applied to the types of active networks commonly found in graphic equalizers. Questions converning frequency and phase response along with the optimum number of bands and their Q are addressed, and some practical situations are examined. Seven different basic topologies are shown with a discussion of the advantages, disadvantages, and unique features of each. three of the seven, representing the most commonly used topologies, are examined in more detail, and the important design equations for each are given. All three are shown to have minimum phase characteristics for any combination of control settings, although other performance differences exist among them.
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