The impulse response of a linear system can be determined by exciting the system with white noise, and cross-correlating the input and output. As contrasted with the straightforward technique suing an impulsive excitation, this approach is capable of providing vastly superior dynamic range. In order to minimize the amount of computation required by the cross-correlation step, the system can be excited by a binary maximal-length sequence, and the cross correlation performed using the fast Hadamard transform. By this means, only additions are required, and the number of additions is approximately 2.5n log(2) n, where n is the length of the sequence.
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