The theoretical model for a low frequency driver assumes linearity. The reality of the matter is, however, that woofers are non-linear devices. Consequently measurement of the driver's ideal (linear) parameters can be exceedingly difficult. This paper will discuss techniques which isolate individual parameters. Without the inhibition of cumulative errors (from the non-linearities of other parameters) the perturbation, as a function of excursion, of each parameter can be examined. The concepts discussed will include analysis and measurement of driver parameters in a vacuum.
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