Two noninvasive techniques, echocardiography, and octave-band analysis, are described here. Noninvasive as used in the text implies that the procedure of the test measurement in question be harmless and painless to the patient. The audio engineer is being acquainted with the problems of prosthetic valve performance and the use of echocardiography and octave-band analysis in identifying mechanical dysfunctions in prosthetic valves.
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