This paper describes how reverberation impacts the instantaneous frequency tracks of modulated audio signals. Although this effect has been observed in a number of contexts, less work has been done relating these deviations to acoustical parameters of the reverberation. This paper details the instantaneous frequency deviations resulting from a sum of echoes or a set of resonant modes and emphasizes the conditions that maximize the resulting effect. Results of these models are compared with the observed instantaneous frequencies of musical vibrato tones filtered with the corresponding impulse responses. It is demonstrated that these reduced models may adequately reproduce the deviations when the signal is filtered by only the early or low frequency portion of a recorded impulse response.
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