Since World War II, many non-invasive diagnostic techniques have been developed which have revolutionized our understanding of cardiovascular function. Non-invasive techniques have many advantages over invasive procedures. There is no discomfort or risk for the patient; anesthesia or heavy sedation which may affect the hemodynamic conditions of the patient are not required; the objectivity associated with the non-invasive tests is also of great value to the clinician especially in patients where other clinical tests yield contradictory or confusing results. The criteria for differentiating normal from abnormal test results cannot be expected to yield precise diagnoses with certainty 100% of the time. However, they do not depend on the subjective opinions or preconceived notions of either the physician or the medical engineer.
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