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Locating the Missing 6 dB by Loudness Calibration of Binaural Synthesis

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Binaural synthesis is a sound reproduction technology based on the convolution of sound signals with impulse responses defined between a source and a listener's eardrums. The convolution products are typically presented by headphones. For perceptual verification, subjects traditionally remove the headphones to listen to the corresponding real scenario, which is cumbersome and requires a pause between the stimuli. In this contribution, loudness adjustments are presented using a method that allows for direct comparison by defining the reference scene for a listener wearing headphones. Influences of different headphones and equalization procedures are discussed and an explanation for the difference in auditory canal pressure between headphone and loudspeaker reproduction at the same loudness commonly referred to as the missing 6 dB is deduced.

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