Spatially extended panel loudspeakers based on bending wave radiation, such as distributed mode loudspeakers or multi-actuator panels, exhibit a complex radiation pattern with frequency-dependent directivity characteristics. This paper seeks to determine the kind, position and number of measurements needed to obtain an average radiation spectrum enabling efficient equalization. To this end, three approaches are compared: wave field extrapolation of the panel surface normal velocity, extrapolation of a near-field pressure measurement, and actual in-situ measurements at a number of random positions inside the listening space. The choice of the positions and the required number of measurements are discussed. Measurements taken on a multi-actuator panel are used to compare the different approaches and present numerical results.
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