Modulation distortion in loudspeakers consists of amplitude modulation distortion (AMD) and frequency modulation distortion (FMD); the effective sum of these is the total modulation distortion (TMD). It appears that the first-order side frequencies are due mainly to frequency modulation and the second-order sideband frequencies are due to amplitude modulation. Small direct-radiator loudspeakers typically display large AMD and relatively less FMD, while horn loudspeakers display small FMD and negligible AMD.
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