A method for analyzing the nonlinear behavior of loudspeakers, which includes the effects of modal resonances and geometrical nonlinearities, results in a model without regard to the kind of nonlinearity. This state-space approach is equally valid for a single degree of freedom (plane wave piston) and higher order degrees, including "break-up" modes of vibration. For a classical loudspeaker, consistency between predicted and measured results across the audible range validates the method. Nonlinearities are observed near resonance frequencies and at their submultiples.
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