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Further Investigation into the ENF Criterion for Forensic Authentication

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In forensic audio one important task is the authentication of audio recordings. In the field of digital audio and digital media one single complete methodology has not been demonstrated yet. However, the ENF (Electric Network Frequency) Criterion has shown promising results and should be regarded as a major tool in that respect. By tracing the electric network frequency in the recorded signal a unique timestamp is provided. This paper analyses a number of situations with the purpose to provide further information for the assessment of this methodology. The topics are: Ways to establish reference data, spectral contents of the electromagnetic fields, low bit rate codecs’ treatment of low level hum components, and tracing ENF harmonic components.

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AES - Audio Engineering Society