Simple waveguide models of loudspeaker enclosures describe well enclosures with simple interior geometry, but their accuracy is limited if used with more complex internal structures. A refinement of transmission line loudspeaker model is discussed, presenting one-dimensional waveguide approximations for bends and corners. Bends and corners are represented as area changes in the line, approximated as one-dimensional line segments with parameters adjusted to match the exact solutions for sharp (rectangular) corners in a waveguide. Besides modeling the paper discusses the sound transmission characteristics of commonly used bend types and the applicability of the results to folded horns.
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